As this improvement is one of the major objectives of the newly elected president of the country, the resonance of these papers is all the greater. Companies partnering with the Centre for a Symposium or a Conference will contribute to an academic project whose repercussions will have a significant effect in professional circles. Corporate partners will benefit from visibility in all communication about the symposium and will also figure prominently in the two books planned to highlight the proceedings. Erfolg mit Anstand. Quel recrutement?
Reflections on innovation in law and the creativity of legal professionals? Quelles nouvelles technologies pour le droit? Below is a partial list of these events, the most recent first:. Past events. Fasterling, avec G. Demuinjck et F. Collard et P. Roquilly avec P. Roquilly et B. Quels dispositifs de lutte? Quels enjeux pour les juristes et les non juristes? Fasterling, presented paper Human rights risk management versus social risk management in workshop on Human Rights and Business, European Society for International Law, Annual Conference, septembre Fasterling, with K.
Entre cadre incitatif et dispositif contraignant. Quelles zones de risque pour les entreprises? Roquilly, Pampelune, Espagne, 8 juin Manara, Towards a "follow the money" strategy to fight against copyright infringement in Italy, Confindustria Digitale, Rome, 12 avril Manara, - Attaccare le forniture di denaro per combattere i contenuti illeciti online?
Collard avec C. Collard, animation avec R. Collard, B. Fasterling, C. Fasterling, "What is ethical about complying with laws? Collard, avec J-C. Loosdregt, B. Bury et B. Manara, Marques et noms de domaine des entreprises sur internet. Quelles interactions entre le droit et les technologies? Manara, From complex international intellectual property law to simplistic uniform policies. The bad or good? The most obvious reason is that we want to be ethical in the first place, but we need to Emmanuelle Deglaire considers Mentions in - - The work done by the Centre members is often mentioned; they also write for both French and international papers.
Below is a partial list of these appearances, beginning with the most recent:. Roquilly, article avec P. Roquilly, Le Monde du droit, 26 novembre -C. Roquilly, Village de la Justice, 5 octobre -C. Roquilly, Revue Personnel, 1er octobre -C. Roquilly, servicesmobiles. Manara, RFI, 10 july Roquilly, actuel-avocat, 2 july - Quote: C. Manara, Clubic, 25 june - Quote: C.
Manara, ZDnet. Manara, globalpost. Manara, Expertises, 1er june - Quote: C. Manara, Owni. Manara, Domaynes-info. Roquilly, Village: la Justice, 30 march - Quote: C. Manara, La Tribune, 29 february - Interview: C. Roquilly, Keepalert, 1 february - Quote: C. Manara, slate. Manara, Informations Entreprises, 1er january - Quote: C. Manara, Le Point, 4 january - Article: C. Manara, Journal du Net, 2 january - Quote: C. Manara, Numerama, 16 january - Quote: C.
Manara, Journal du Dimanche, 10 april - Quote: C. Manara, Free, 1er march - Quote: C. Roquilly, Le Monde campus , , march - Quote: C. Manara, Free, 15 february - Interview C. Manara, Ouest France, 8 december - Citation C. Manara, 20 Minutes, 8 december - Interview C. Manara, Rue 89, 4 december - Citation C. Manara, L'Expansion, 3 december - Citation C. Roquilly, Gazette du Palais 1er october - Quote: C.
Manara, Le Point, 27 september - Quote: C. Manara, Rue 89, 14 september - Quote: C. Roquilly, RiskAssur Hebdo, 23 july Manara, Managing Intellectual Property, 23 july Manara, La Tribune, 21 juillet Manara, Portail free. Manara, PCInpact, 10 june Manara, 01Net, 3 june Manara, Le Point, 3 june Manara , slate. Manara, Le Monde, 3 april Manara, mailclub. Manara, Le Monde, 23 march Roquilly, arseginfo, 1st march Manara, managingip.
Manara , IPKat, 25 february Manara, lepost. Manara, rue89, 8 february - Interview: C. Manara, InfoRisque, 15 january - Quote: C. Manara, HadopiInfo. Manara, 01Net, 13 january - Quote: C. Fasterling, La Tribune, 9 december - Quote: C. Manara, Yahoo France, 12 november - Quote: C. Roquilly and C.
Manara in 60 millions de consommateurs, 1er november - Quote: LegalEdhec, Dailybourse, 26 october - Interview: C. Manara, La Republica, 22 september - Article by C. Roquilly in Communications Daily, 6 february - Quote: C. Manara interviewed on Juriscom. Collard and C. Manara quoted in Le Point , 19 July - C.
Manara quoted in The Register , 14 July - C. Manara quoted in Technology Daily , 19 April - C. Manara quoted in Journal du Net , 12 April - C. Manara quoted in Les Echos , 29 November - C. Manara quoted in L'Express , 21 November - C. Manara quoted in Le Monde , 20 September Fully international and directly connected to the business world, EDHEC is a school for business, rather than a business school, where excellence in teaching and research focuses on innovation to stimulate entrepreneurship and creativity. EDHEC functions as a genuine laboratory of ideas and produces innovative solutions valued by businesses.
Skip to main content. EN FR. Search form. Research and innovation. EDHEC ranks 1 business school for the quality and innovation of its corporate relations. Pioneering a new student experience. LegalEdhec Research Centre. The research conducted by LegalEdhec — which is then diffused via publications in professional and academic journals, conferences and various studies — brings together a number of complementary themes: Augmented Law, Lawyer, and Lawyering : how do AI and digital technologies impact the law field and professional practices?
We hope you enjoy discovering it! The LegalEdhec research centre is currently made up of four professors and a research associate. Common law efficiency when joinder and class actions fail as aggregation devices. Academic publication. Frank Fagan. Urmee Khan. Position paper. Pierre Courtioux. Emmanuelle Deglaire. The End of Bargaining in the Digital Age. Saul Levmore. Electricity de regulation and innovation.
Research Policy, December Marianna Marino. Pierpaolo Parrotta. Giacomo Valletta. Le Droit et les Juristes vus par les dirigeants - Volet Christophe Roquilly. Systemic Social Media Regulation. The Timing of Lawmaking. Ghislain de Lagrevol. Village de la LegalTech. Christophe Collard. The Political Role of Corporations. Droit et juristes vus par les dirigeants. The effectiveness of compliance. The Compliance Game: Why legally incentivized corporate compliance and cooperation in economic crime enforcement may be ineffective. The different roles of an ethicist in a corporation.
The Different Roles of an Ethicist in a Corporation. The Timing of Law and Business Decsionmaking. Secret des affaires : quelle protection pour les entreprises? CSR in the age of Uber: assigning responsibility to the business enterprise as an economic unit. Les directions juridiques de demain.
This is true for the openness of companies to employ women with disabled children looking for a healthy life — work balance. What action has the European Union taken and what action does it intend to take in this regard? With regard to future action in this field, the Council would remind the Honourable Member that it can only act in a legislative capacity on the basis of a proposal from the European Commission.
When can we expect the Commission to announce the amount of resources to be spent on accessibility, allocated to products and services, as well as to the built environment for the benefit of people with disabilities, and the list and analysis of projects implemented by individual Member States? This measure is under negotiation with the European Parliament and the Council. Member States report about projects, including on accessibility measures, on a yearly basis, but the overall amount of resources spent on accessibility can be only analysed and reported after the finalisation of the European Regional Development Fund programmes.
It is considered as part of the ex-post evaluation reports. What has been the outcome of the analyses and surveys relating to the supported decision-making mechanism? Issues regarding supported decision-making are fully within the competence of the Member States. In this area the role of the Commission is mainly to raise awareness among Member States on the importance of proper assistance regarding access to legal documents and procedures.
What body is responsible for hot-air ballooning? Is there a safety plan governing the conduct of such flights? The competent aviation authority of a Member State is responsible for the regulation and oversight of balloon operators established in its territory pursuant to the national legislation and to its State Safety Plan SSP. Operators' liability for this mode of transport are also governed by national rules.
These rules are tailored to the type of operations and the complexity of the aircraft used e. The liability of operators for the safe operation of balloons will, under the future EU rules, be the same as for the operation of other aircraft categories. For some time now the Swedish police have been carrying out an operation called REVA together with the Swedish prison service and migration service. The Swedish media have reported cancer sufferers without a residence permit who do not dare to take the underground to go to hospital for fear of being caught in one of these checks.
Member States must, however, respect proportionality and are obliged under the directive and the Charter of Fundamental Rights to carry out return measures in a humane manner and in full respect of fundamental rights. Based on the information submitted and contacts with the Swedish authorities, the Commission cannot conclude that the control measures referred to by the Honourable Member are contrary to Union law. Should controls systematically be carried out only of persons with a certain appearance, this would however be discriminatory.
As far as EU free-movement rules are concerned, the Commission cannot conclude that these would have been breached either. The Swedish authorities have furthermore confirmed that the control measures referred to are no longer carried out. Measures to enhance apprehension practices as a part of an integrated return plan are not per se excluded from co-financing under the European Return Fund.
Mit Beschluss Nr. It includes the European Voluntary Service EVS , which aims to support young people's participation in voluntary activities of various kinds within and outside the European Union. The European Commission bears overall responsibility for running the Youth in Action programme, manages the budget, decides who will receive financial assistance, and is responsible for setting the programme's priorities, goals and criteria on an ongoing basis.
However, serious concerns regarding the eligibility of a project promoter and failure to comply with the support criteria have been brought to my attention. Volunteers also report that the Hungarian Malteser association has created phantom jobs so that they may be able to skim off more EU funds. What consequences does it think such abuses have for the EVS programme, in particular in terms of the award criteria for EVS funding? In what circumstances can the accreditation of supported projects be withdrawn if they fail to follow the EVS Charter, and what binding consequences does this have?
What monitoring mechanisms have been or will be established to prevent repeated failure to respect the quality criteria? Again and again, beef products appear which contain a certain amount of horsemeat that is not accounted for on the content label on the packaging. Does the Commission consider this to be a problem of lax food safety or of consumer misinformation?
What steps or measures will the Commission take to prevent such a situation from occurring again? To date, there is no indication of a safety concern; however, falsifying labels on foods constitutes fraud in food labelling. Food business operators are primarily responsible for ensuring that the products placed on the market comply with Union food law requirements, while the national competent authorities are responsible for enforcing them by conducting appropriate controls and imposing dissuasive and effective penalties.
The Commission is actively coordinating the pending investigations in the Member States concerned both on a political and a technical level. The forthcoming Commission proposal on official controls will aim at further strengthening the existing system, including the provisions on sanctions. Oggetto: Finanziamenti norvegesi per l'incitamento palestinese a sentimenti antisemiti. Si tratta di uno dei primi paesi europei a riconsiderare i suoi contributi non specifici ai territori palestinesi alla luce delle notizie di incitamento a sentimenti antisemiti.
Libri, eventi culturali e organizzazioni che promuovono l'antisemitismo sono citati come esempi nel libro del PMW. La Commissione ha effettuato tentativi in passato, per discutere di questo problema con la AP e, in caso affermativo, quali ne sono alcuni dei risultati?
It is one of the first European countries to reconsider its non-specific aid contributions to the Palestinian territories in light of reports of incitement of anti-Semitic sentiment. Books, cultural events and organisations that promote anti-Semitism are cited as examples in the PMW book.
It is perhaps not surprising that the [Palestinian] hatred is growing. In light of reports in the Norwegian media that the PA is supporting incitement against Jews through the funding of media outlets, is the Commission prepared to undertake a thorough review of the use made of EU funding to the PA? Is the Commission prepared to discuss with the PA the issue of incitement of anti-Semitic sentiment on its TV channels, which indirectly receive EU funding?
Has the Commission made attempts in the past to discuss this problem with the PA, and, if so, what were some of the outcomes? He explained that the Norwegian Government had brought up the issue of incitement with the Palestinian Authority PA and explained that halting aid to the PA was not an option. EU funding to the PA is allocated in a transparent and auditable way. All funding, whether intended for direct financial support or for contracts for Palestinian organisations, is subject to rigorous ex ante and ex post verification procedures.
Therefore, a review of the use of EU funding is not under consideration. The EU respects freedom of expression as a key feature of a democratic society. This statement affirmed that the report misrepresents the editorial policy of Palestine television which is based on respect for human dignity and freedom of expression and religion. The Commission is not aware of incidents of incitement to hatred or violence made by Palestinian public broadcasters.
Oggetto: Sviluppo dell'Erasmus per gli eletti locali e regionali. Per consentire una migliore utilizzazione dei fondi strutturali europei, la Commissione europea ha istituito nel mese di ottobre il programma Erasmus per eletti locali e regionali. L'iniziativa ha avuto molto successo e ha ottenuto un gran numero di iscrizioni in pochi giorni.
Per il momento non sembra quindi il caso di organizzare iniziative analoghe. Non si fa alcun riferimento specifico in proposito nelle proposte per la politica di coesione per il periodo successivo al This initiative proved to be highly popular, with a large number of people applying in a matter of days. An in-depth evaluation of the preparatory action will be carried out by the contractor which supports the Commission. If the evaluation is positive, the Commission will reflect on possibilities to pursue such actions in the context of cohesion policy.
Therefore, it does not seem appropriate to re-launch similar actions at this stage. There is no specific reference to such action in the proposals for cohesion policy after Administrative capacity building is also mentioned. Oggetto: Latte contaminato da sostanze cancerogene in Albania. I produttori, dal canto loro, contestano che l'Albania non ha un laboratorio specializzato per l'analisi di prodotti contaminati e che, di fatto, si appoggia a laboratori accreditati negli Stati membri dell'UE.
Per evitare che gravi carenze in tema di sicurezza alimentare esistenti in un paese terzo si ripercuotano negativamente sulla salute dei consumatori europei, viene adottata una politica impostata sul rischio per controllare alle frontiere gli alimenti importati da paesi terzi. Il regolamento CE n. Milk products tested by the Albanian food safety authority have been found to contain high levels of aflatoxins, carcinogenic compounds produced by certain species of fungus used in livestock fodder.
In response, producers argue that Albania does not have its own specialist laboratory for testing contaminated products and must therefore rely on accredited laboratories in EU Member States. Efforts are needed to improve the definition of competence, responsibilities and communication regarding risk management, the registration of movements of animals, the control of animal diseases, and the upgrading of food and feed establishments.
What foodstuffs and food products are freely traded between Albania and EU Member States and what is the scale of that trade? Albania as a potential candidate country is subject to the same general requirements for the import of food as any other third country. To avoid serious failings in the area of food safety in a third country adversely affecting the health of European consumers, a risk-based policy is adopted to check food imported from third countries at the border. However, such a food safety problem with food imported from Albania has not yet been identified.
This does not necessarily mean that these laboratories have to be located in the country exporting the food. Grensoverschrijdend verkeer toelaten zou een besparing betekenen voor alle economische operatoren en zou een positieve impact hebben op het milieu en het energieverbruik. Overweegt de Commissie de betrokken lidstaten toe te laten bilaterale akkoorden te sluiten waarin wordt vastgelegd dat het maximum toegelaten gewicht binnen deze landen ook geldt voor de grenspassage tussen deze landen?
Bilaterale overeenkomsten kunnen leiden tot een toenemend aantal regionale normen die nadelig kunnen zijn voor de eengemaakte markt en die in het licht van de mogelijke gevolgen voor de internationale concurrentie in de transportsector, zorgvuldig moeten worden afgewogen. This directive limits vehicles engaged in international transport to 40 tons. It follows that it is possible to set out from Belgium to travel to France or vice versa with a ton combination and drive to the national border.
At the border, the weight of the vehicle must be reduced to 40 tons. Once it has crossed over into the other country, the weight limit applicable is again 44 tons. This is an absurd situation, because as regards safety and the suitability of the road network, there is no problem in either country with allowing trucks weighing 44 tons to operate. Permitting international transport would result in savings for all economic operators and would have a positive impact on the environment and energy consumption.
Introducing bilateral agreements could lead to the existence of an increasing number of regional standards which may be detrimental to the internal market, and should be carefully considered in light of the possible impact on international competition in the transport sector. Scientists from the University of Coimbra and the Higher School of Agriculture of Coimbra have developed a device for detecting the presence of the pinewood nematode pest long before it becomes apparent, making it possible to combat its spread.
Being aware of the devastating impact of this pest, would the Commission be willing to support the production and distribution of this device, and to support its inventors in this and other projects related to this issue? A group of Portuguese researchers have developed a device that can instantly detect the presence of pine wood nematode, which may prevent many trees affected by the disease from being felled. According to the lead researcher, the techniques currently used do not prevent trees from being felled once the nematode has been detected and identified and, under current legislation, the only solution is to immediately chop down and destroy the pine trees.
The pine wood nematode is causing significant damage in forests of certain Member States. The device referred to by the Honourable Member adds a new element to the toolbox for combatting this devastating pest and further research on the applicability and efficacy of this methodology for on-site early detection of the infected trees should be continued. Os debates no Parlamento Europeu devem ter lugar em momentos cruciais do semestre europeu.
In what areas does it think that strengthening the role of national parliaments is most justified? In what areas does it think that strengthening the role of the European Parliament is most justified? Has the current debate produced any conclusions yet, even if only preliminary ones? What are they? To what extent does it think that, in the abovementioned debate, account should be taken of the British Government's statement regarding the need for national parliaments to occupy — and continue to occupy — a central position in a future, more democratic European institutional architecture?
Joint answer given by Mr Barroso on behalf of the Commission. The Parliaments' roles at European and national levels in EMU are complementary: while the Commission is accountable to the European Parliament, national parliaments are central in ensuring legitimacy of Member States' action in the Council and European Council. The Parliaments' scrutiny powers thus must be strengthened at both levels.
Within the framework of the Treaty, discussion should focus on practical measures. At European level, the Economic Dialogue providing for discussions between the European Parliament, on the one hand, and the Commission, MS, the Council, the European Council and the Eurogroup on the other hand is important. Debates in the European Parliament should be held at key moments in the European semester.
European political parties should be further strengthened along the lines proposed by the Commission , and nominate a candidate for Commission President ahead of the next European election. At national level, the Parliaments should be involved, in line with national rules, in the national decision-making in the context of the European Semester.
To facilitate national Parliaments' work, the Commission is committed to an intensified dialogue on the Annual Growth Survey and Country-Specific Recommendations. The Commission fully supports inter-parliamentary cooperation, which it considers to be very useful given the interdependency of the Parliaments' decisions. The Parliaments will define the concrete implementation of such cooperation.
Since the emergence of the problem of undeclared horse meat in the food chain, there have been calls for more specific labelling of processed meat products, to indicate country of origin. In my view, EU legislation on the origin of meat in prepared foods should have prevented this incident. That it could occur is mainly the result of someone intentionally misstating the characteristics of a product.
Does it not feel that, in addition to the restrictions currently in place, there is need for further EU-level regulation in this area? What penalties would it propose to deter companies from violating the rules on the origin of meat in prepared foods? The responsibility for enforcing food chain legislation lies with Member States, which are required to establish a system of official controls to verify compliance by operators with requirements deriving therefrom and sanction non-compliances.
The Commission monitors delivery by the Member States of its control duties, including through on-the-spot audits. The forthcoming proposal on official controls will aim to further strengthen the existing system, including as regards sanctions. If it is aware of the international invitation to tender launched in Madeira in for the construction of a liquefied natural gas LNG terminal? If so, is it aware that work has been on hold since as a result of the worsening financial environment in the EU?
Whether the European Union has financial and technical instruments available to allow the region to re-launch this project, which is essential for diversifying supply on the island of Madeira? Whether it considers the introduction of natural gas in Madeira, which is a pioneering project that other island regions can follow, to be important?
However, to make the system more viable, secure and stable, it must also guarantee other supply sources such as natural gas, which is a cleaner fossil fuel than fuel oil. The introduction of natural gas in islands has to be assessed on a case-by-case basis based on a cost-benefit analysis. The Commission will follow the development of the project with great interest. American scientists have warned US public authorities about the excessive consumption of energy drinks and have called for the regulation of such beverages and a limit on the amount of caffeine they contain.
Is the Commission aware of these scientific studies on the consumption of energy drinks and their association with heart attacks, hospitalisations and even deaths? Is it aware of any hospitalisations or deaths in the Member States linked to the excessive consumption of energy drinks? The risk assessment should be finalised by the end of As a result, special rates of duty are now applied to products sold in the Antilles, French Guiana and Reunion.
The main aim of the revision was to bring the relevant Union legislation into line with Court of Justice rulings. To that end, it introduced more balanced arrangements to reconcile the protection of island economies with integration into the single market. This form of duty also makes a major contribution to the revenue of local authorities whose budgets are severely squeezed by the economic crisis. Dock dues are thus of systemic importance to the economies of the outermost regions and the financing of public provision there.
Does the Commission intend to put the dock dues system on a permanent footing? What is the thrust of the reforms envisaged?
Might the list of products concerned be revised on an annual basis? What transitional arrangements does the Commission intend to put in place to bridge this gap in legal provision? Furthermore, they have indicated their intention to apply a similar scheme in Mayotte. However, the French authorities have not to date submitted a formal request, either for Mayotte or for the other DOMs, specifying the exact products concerned and the differentiation that they wish to apply.
Therefore, the Commission is still not able to adopt a position on this matter. All requests for authorisation to apply a scheme such as dock dues must in any case be duly substantiated and based on relevant factors, so that the extent of additional costs to be compensated may be identified and evaluated. However, cases of nitrate pollution have continued to occur in Valencia. Specifically, residents in the municipality of Alzira have been banned from drinking tap water after it was found to contain traces of pesticides above EU limits and substances already banned by EU legislation.
The same thing happened a year ago in the neighbouring municipality of Carcaixent, where residents were also banned from drinking domestic water whose potability was called into question. In Valencia pledged to the Commission that it would take measures to ensure that irrigated intensive farming in the area would not continue to cause serious problems in terms of excess nitrates entering the water supply. However, as demonstrated by the specific cases of Alzira and Carcaixent, the cartography presented by the Valencian authorities and its corresponding management plans have proved incapable of guaranteeing the quality of water and the health of the people it is supplied to.
In addition, the Valencian authorities have had to report numerous breaches of environmental legislation on water to the Commission in recent years. Will the Commission consider reopening proceedings for failure to comply with the directive on nitrates? Can it guarantee compliance with EU legislation on water destined for human consumption in Valencia? Based on water quality status and trends, including any relevant evidence on drinking water quality deterioration, the Commission will assess whether the current Nitrate Vulnerable Zones and Action Programmes, including in the Region of Valencia, are in line with achieving the objectives of the directive and will take action if appropriate.
The Commission will analyse these reports, including for the region of Valencia, in order to identify if systematic problems with drinking water quality are identified. Based on this analysis the Commission may decide to take appropriate action. Den enkelte landmand skal bl. Dette svar er vedlagt to bilag. Farmers must inter alia make precise area declarations and provide information on plant cover composition in order to meet cross-compliance rules cf.
Would the Commission moreover say how much it costs Member State authorities to check farmers' applications for agricultural support and verify that cross-compliance rules are being met. The latest available statistics regarding breaches of the Cross-Compliance requirements in the Member States and their impact in terms of agricultural support, concern financial year in respect of claim year It should be mentioned that the cross-compliance sanctioning system's objective is to encourage European farmers to comply with underlying environmental regulations.
Therefore the benefit of cross-compliance controls should not be measured by number of breaches but rather seen in the light of the respect of these environmental regulations by the farmers. Organisation of controls is different in every Member State and they do not provide systematic information on the cost of those controls. On the basis of the data available to it, can the Commission provide information on the balance of remittances in Greece last year ? Was there a deficit or a surplus?
To which countries are the largest amounts being remitted? Compared to the last few years, has there been any significant change in this balance? The latest release on their website offers data until Q3 According to this data, Greece has traditionally been a net recipient of remittances from the rest of the world. In other words, workers in the rest of the world have been sending more remittances to Greece than workers in Greece have sent to the rest of the world. However, driven by a large decline in remittances sent to Greece, this pattern has reversed in recent data.
Since Q2 , workers in Greece have been sending more remittances to the rest of the world than Greece has been receiving. However, one should note that data on more recent developments after Q3 is not yet published by Eurostat. Does the Commission have any data on the amount of money lying in dormant bank deposits in the EU? What is the situation in Greece? Since there is an ongoing debate in Member States about the use of such deposits, can the Commission say whether the use of dormant deposits in the public interest is compatible with Community law?
In a number of Member States, funds held on dormant accounts always remain the property of customers and therefore are not available for any other purposes. However, there is no specific legislation on dormant accounts regulating what happens with deposits after the expiry of those limits. In some Member States funds are transferred to the state or used for special purposes by the government.
In 2 of those Member States part of dormant funds is channelled into social welfare projects while the majority remains available for possible claims. The Commission does not have information on the amounts of dormant deposits in Greek banks. This question should be addressed to the Greek public authorities. According to a report by McAfee Labs, the number of web threats is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. Does it have any data on the percentage of European citizens who have fallen victim at least once to a web threat? Can it assess how the initiatives taken so far to tackle specific threats are able to keep up with the ever increasing number of online threats?
While this and other reports suggest that web threats and cybercrime on the whole are on the rise, there have also been some successes in the fight against cybercrime, notably due to excellent cooperation between EU Member States and beyond. To ensure success in the fight against cybercrime, such close cooperation is key, and it is essential to ensure that the necessary legislative and institutional framework for international cooperation is in place. Can the Commission say whether it has any information on the extent of homelessness in the Member States and the change in the number of homeless people compared with the past?
Has it found that Member States — particularly those experiencing an economic crisis — are pursuing policies aimed at reducing this social problem? Has if identified the existence of best practices or pilot programmes being implemented in Member States which could also be adopted as best practices by other Member States? Although harmonised data at EU level are not available, the CSWD points out that homelessness seems to have increased in most Member States, both as an effect of the crisis and as a result of other socioeconomic factors, such as ageing, migration and adverse changes on the housing market.
There are now also more young people, migrants, people living in poverty, women, families with children and Roma among the homeless and those at risk of homelessness. A number of EU social experimentation projects financed under the Progress programme are relevant to homelessness.
Further funding of innovative approaches to the problem has been proposed under the Multiannual Financial Framework for the forthcoming period. For instance, the results of the Housing First Europe project and the Work in Stations pilot project, which are expected in late and of a new pilot project on the right to housing to be launched this semester, may offer new avenues for tackling homelessness. Nevertheless, the Millennium Goals have failed in other ways, for example as regards the goals on the quality of education available, the number of children who attend secondary schools and issues of gender inequality and violence against women.
Could the Commission provide information about what is being done in order to get a proper understanding of the failures of the Millennium Development Goals, particularly in the area of gender equality? What measures can be put in place to deal with these failures? Significant progress has been made regarding primary education opportunities for girls, with 96 girls for every boys attending primary school in developing regions.
However, gender inequality still exists in second level education. What is being done to address this high rate? The Commission agrees that although good progress has been achieved on the Millennium Development Goal MDG3 target on gender parity in education, gender inequality persists and women continue to face discrimination in access to education, work and economic assets, and participation in government. The GAP puts in place a number of mechanisms to strengthen the integration of gender equality in all development activities, with strong emphasis on education, at the primary as well as the secondary and university level.
The implementation reports show that an increasing number of our programmes are screened against their gender sensitiveness and that appropriate indicators are being applied to check that women benefit equally from development activities. The Commission considers that further efforts are necessary to attain MDG3 by and that gender equality should remain an important priority for the post period.
Concerning India, gender parity has already been achieved in primary education.
Special measures are being implemented to ensure universal access for all girls by to secondary education. Microsoft Office is a very useful programme which is very popular and is used daily by millions of Europeans. The result of this is that the consumer is under pressure to subscribe to the Microsoft plan, which allows the user to hire a license and software and to use them on multiple computer devices.
This is a worrying development, especially since the Court of Justice of the European Union has ruled that the resale of used software is allowed. Could the Commission give its opinion on such restrictive business practices and whether the market dominance of Microsoft Office is in breach of EU competition law? It is a common practice in the software industry for vendors to offer different types of software licences in accordance with customer needs and price them accordingly. This practice does not, in itself, give rise to competition concerns, as it can allow consumers to purchase the licensing package which best suit their needs at a price of their choice.
In how many Member States is the slaughter of animals without stunning currently forbidden? Four Member States, namely Finland, Lithuania, Poland and Sweden, have let the Commission know that they do not make use of the derogation. Does this statement not contradict measures taken by the Troika, of which the Commission is part, with regard to the adjustment programme negotiated for Portugal? When will measures to stimulate economic growth replace those which have led to excessive austerity? She added that there are important structural problems in Portugal which must be addressed by means of fiscal consolidation measures and structural reforms since otherwise there is no future for the new generation in Portugal.
She also said that while the country is currently facing difficult times there is already light at the end of the tunnel as a result of the reforms being undertaken by the Portuguese authorities as part of the Economic Adjustment Programme. On the same line, the Portuguese Government is currently implementing measures in the framework of the Economic Adjustment Programme. This Programme includes a wide range of reform measures that aim at making the Portuguese economy more flexible and competitive thereby generating the trust and confidence necessary to attract further investment and setting the conditions for sustainable growth and jobs.
This is a much more promising strategy than stimulating the economy with demand-oriented measures which, as past experience has shown, have not served Portugal particularly well. There is a general consensus that banks have not done enough to finance the economy during these times of crisis.
This week in Portugal, the Troika will meet with eight banks, some of which have resorted to temporary and refundable state recapitalisation measures. Does the Commission not feel that banks must find a way of financing the economy, now that many of them have been stabilised using state aid? The Commission together with ECB and IMF staff discusses during the review missions predominantly the Portuguese banks' funding and capital plans FCP , which comprise the financial institutions forward-looking views on their capital position, liquidity situation, profitability and in general income statement and balance sheet developments.
The FCPs are based on Banco de Portugal macroeconomic projections and are revised on a quarterly basis. The data also serve as basis for the regular stress tests by Banco de Portugal to gauge the sector's ability to withstand economic shocks. In past two years, Portuguese banks registered sustained heavy losses reflecting the difficult macroeconomic picture at home and in Southern Europe. These losses are mostly to rising impairment charges on non-performing credit. Banks also have to manage a difficult funding position with thin interest margins because the mortgage loans portfolio is indexed to the Euribor rate.
In pre-crisis years most Portuguese banks relied heavily on wholesale funding or borrowing on international credit markets , which since mid remains practically shut for any Portugal domiciled bank, making the whole sector heavily dependent on ECB funding. Beyond help to Portuguese banks, steps towards a banking union should weaken negative feedback loops between banks and sovereigns and help restore funding to the real economy across the euro area. Only a sustained decrease in public spending will effectively achieve the goals set out in the memorandum of understanding concluded.
What support has the Commission provided to the Portuguese Government as regards public spending to help achieve the goals set out in the memorandum of understanding concluded? The Economic Adjustment Programme for Portugal aims at putting public finances on a sustainable path ensuring a balance between expenditure and revenue-based consolidation so as to create a medium-term growth friendly fiscal adjustment.
In view of restoring the balance between expenditure and revenue-based consolidation, the authorities have embarked on a comprehensive public expenditure review to identify measures worth about 2. The review aims at addressing redundancies across the public sector functions and entities, reallocating resources toward growth-friendly spending areas and ensuring sustainability of public finances. Following a broad-based consultation with social and political partners with a view to building consensus around these reforms, the government will adopt and publish, by end-April, a medium-term fiscal framework, with fully specified expenditure-reducing measures.
LegalEdhec Research Centre
While the Commission is encouraging authorities' efforts to reorient fiscal consolidation towards expenditure-reducing measures in and beyond, Commission services have, however, not provided technical assistance with respect to identifying individual expenditure-reducing measures. According to Portuguese reports, the Commission does not believe that the deficit increase is down to the economic recession alone, since the structural deficit has also increased.
This economic indicator is a key factor, imposed by the European Treaty, which enables the pace of fiscal consolidation to be measured. The Commission has altered its outlook for Portugal, with the deficit now expected to be 4. The Commission is regularly assessing its own forecasting performance with the aim of improving its tools and its forecasting results. The Commission's track record is found to be good both measured by statistical indicators as well as in comparison with other international institutions and the consensus forecast.
Similar results hold true for the specific forecasts made for Portugal: both the forecasts for output and the general government balance are found to be unbiased at usual statistical significance levels. Moreover, no significant persistence can be found in the forecast errors for these variables. Obviously, uncertainties are large at the current juncture as the volatility of various indicators has significantly increased since the beginning of the crisis and therefore many unexpected factors can lead to relatively large revisions in the forecast.
The most recent revision in the forecast for Portugal was driven to a large extent by an unexpected deterioration of the outlook in Portugal's export markets which is likely to lead to lower economic growth and, via negative second-round effects may weigh on employment and fiscal revenues as well. Assunto: Taxas de juros mais baixas para Portugal. He added that the euro is strong, but interest rates still need to fall to help finance the countries. According to Wade, Portugal is on the right track but has not yet reached the end of the road; as such, the country will need to request that the ECB intervene and lower interest rates.
Does the Commission agree that lower interest rates are needed for Portugal to restart a process of economic growth and to escape from the downward spiral it finds itself in? High real interest rates are not conducive to dynamic investment growth if the marginal efficiency of capital is low. For investments to have a lasting impact on growth it is important that they flow into the most dynamic and competitive sectors of the economy. Portugal enjoyed low interest rates and high investment rates over the period between the late s and the mids but the impact on growth was very limited — the average growth rate during and amounted to 1.
This is mainly due to the fact that investments were concentrated in infrastructure and in non-export oriented sectors such as network industries and services. The macro-economic returns on these investments were very modest as evidenced by the fall in total factor productivity during this period. Strategies to lower interest rates in Portugal are constrained by the continued high country risk linked to the fragile position of the sovereign, which will keep risk spreads relatively high in the foreseeable future. As a consequence, a sustainable medium-term growth model for Portugal needs to be based first and foremost on high investment efficiency, i.
It is for this reason that the Economic Adjustment Programme has included a number of measures to channel credit into SMEs in the export-oriented sector while strengthening competitive forces in the economy, particularly in the non-tradable sector. Aquando da 7. Based on these new forecasts, the Portuguese Government will request amendments to the memorandum of understanding. Is the Commission willing to consider improving the terms of the memorandum of understanding currently in force in Portugal?
This revision of the budgetary adjustment path was fully justified in view of the significant deterioration in the economic outlook, in conjunction with Portugal's good track record of programme implementation. This, if sustained and followed by other rating agencies, is likely to significantly improve the Portuguese sovereign's prospects of a return to the market, which is an essential pre-condition for a graduation from the programme.
This latest round of negotiations did not yield any progress with regard to the Iranian programme for uranium enrichment.
What new measures will be taken to dissuade Iran from continuing with its nuclear programme? The meeting was aimed at re-engaging Iran in talks about the international community's concerns regarding the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran's nuclear programme. It is expected that Iran will seriously consider the presented proposal and engage in a full-fledged negotiating process leading to a long term solution.
Most designs and prototypes reach Portugal as a result of EU-wide cooperation. Given the considerable potential for Portugal to use this clean and risk-free energy, what EU funding is the Commission considering allocating to this area? The informal dialogue with the Portuguese authorities on the future programming period is still ongoing and the formal negotiations have not yet started. Therefore, the Commission does not yet have any indication on the financing of energy area. However, the Commission considers that there is room to exploit further the high potential capacities in renewable energy sources solar, wind, hydro, biomass and ocean.
Support should be provided, after taking into proper consideration alternative financial sustainability mechanisms, to projects involving innovative renewable technologies, in particular technologies mentioned in the Strategic Energy Technology Plan and in the energy roadmap Tests on water taps have been commissioned by the Swedish National Housing Board.
The tests revealed that many modern taps were discharging more lead than the Swedish maximum permitted limit of 20 micrograms. Exposure to lead may be higher internationally than it is in Sweden. In Europe individuals are exposed daily to lead and are thus at risk of harm. Does the Commission know what the situation is in other countries?
In view of the free movement of building materials, how does the Commission view the need for common EU rules on the question of lead in water taps? As regards the situation of lead contamination in drinking water, the Commission is currently assessing the reports submitted by Member States and intends to publish its findings later this year data from The previous report data from showed that lead exceedences occurred in six Member States.
Beyond this activity, the Commission does not consider the development of further common rules or harmonised instruments as necessary. This is because the harmonised test methods will provide a level playing field for products while taking into account the threshold values in the DWD. The plan to establish the European TIN has been devised in response to the fact that correctly identifying taxpayers is proving increasingly difficult, owing to the greater mobility of the population and the growing number of cross-border transactions.
Will the European Taxpayer Identification Number be established in such a way as to ensure that taxpayers' and the authorities' rights are safeguarded and that those taxpayers and authorities fulfil their obligations? Action 22 of the action plan adopted by the Commission on 6. The action plan acknowledges that although the concept of an EU TIN is simple, its implementation deserves careful preparation.
Many different aspects will need to be explored before a proposal can be made and the question of the rights and obligations of taxpayers and tax authorities will certainly be at the heart of the analysis. In taking forward this action, the Commission would like to consult widely with all interested stakeholders. The views expressed by the contributors will be used by the Commission services to support a feasibility study aimed at further analysing the pros and cons of an EU TIN with a view to developing the appropriate policy response.
According to a study by a Portuguese consumer watchdog magazine, an analysis of minced meat sold in butcher's shops, supermarkets and hypermarkets has revealed that it contained bacteria indicating contamination with potentially fatal faecal matter and micro-organisms, such as E. Faecal contamination of meat can indicate poor hygiene standards on the part of the person handling it. However, microbiological contamination could occur at any stage of the food-preparation process.
The author of the study was concerned at the presence of salmonella and listeria in the meat, which — depending on the amount of meat consumed and the state of health of the person concerned — could be fatal. Sulphites are used to restore colour to the meat and give the impression that it is fresh — whereas this may no longer be the case.
In a climate of panic, what action is the Commission taking in order to ensure that more inspections are carried out? The findings as indicated in the question concern a breach in EU legislation. A farm to fork food safety approach must be applied to all food and is of major importance for highly perishable foods such as minced meat. Restrictions on minced meat apply as regards Listeria if placed on the market as ready to eat food , Salmonella, Escherichia coli and aerobic colony count indicator of freshness.
Non-compliance with the other abovementioned requirements must result in immediate corrective action of the process but has no consequences for the batch concerned. Inspections on the verification of EU requirements are the competence of national authorities. Assunto: Agricultura verbas perdidas no segundo pilar no ano de The Community support fund for rural development is a key assistance instrument available to Member States.
If any were, which measures were affected? Which of the appropriations available under the second pillar did Portugal lose in due to a failure to execute them? Nos termos do artigo With regard to the use and execution of EAFRD funding, both under the first pillar where there is no co-financing by Member States and under the second pillar where this is required , will the Commission say:.
What financial adjustments have been imposed on Portugal between and the present? What financial adjustments — and in respect of what amounts — have already been settled? With regard to the use and execution of EAFRD funding, both under the first pillar where there is no co-financing by Member States and under the second pillar where this is required , will the Commission say whether, in the context of this Community support fund for the period , and for as far as the first pillar is concerned, there are any financial adjustments that Portugal will be required to make?
The Proder aims to increase the competitiveness of the agricultural and forestry sectors and to promote the sustainability of rural areas and natural resources as well as the economic and social revitalisation of rural areas. Assunto: Agricultura: verbas perdidas por Portugal no ano de Assunto: Agricultura: verbas perdidas no primeiro pilar no ano de Which of the appropriations available under the first pillar did Portugal lose in due to a failure to execute them?
The annual report for will be available in autumn and so at present the budget execution figures are provisional. For market-related expenditure, no pre-determined allocation for Portugal is established in the basic acts, except for the wine support programme and the POSEI support for which Portugal is close to a full utilisation of the envelopes.
As regards direct aids, Portugal paid The execution improved to Dentro desses limites, os Estados-Membros podem orientar melhor o apoio. Within these ceilings, Member States may further target the support. In addition, young setting up farmers may benefit from a number of other measures, notably from an increased aid intensity for investments. Does the Commission believe that Portugal could increase the budget for the setting up of young farmers and, if so, what procedures should it adopt? This is considered one of the most dangerous sectors and children as young as five years old are working with livestock.
The FAO report on tackling child labour in the livestock sector is a useful study that contributes to our understanding of the nature of the problem and will inform our policies when it comes to helping partner governments to develop and implement actions regarding child labour in the agriculture sector. The EU is committed to eradicating child labour at global level and in particular the worst forms of child labour which include hazardous work. The EU addresses this issue through a holistic approach bringing together political dialogues, development cooperation, education, the promotion of Corporate Social Responsibility and trade policies.
Fra le violazioni del protocollo per ottenere uova biologiche, il numero degli animali raccolti insieme nei pollai e il trattamento stesso delle galline ovaiole. Lo scandalo potrebbe estendersi ad altri paesi europei. Ai sensi dell'articolo 27 del regolamento CE n. During a press conference, Holger Eichele, the spokesperson for the German Ministry of Agriculture, said that judicial authorities in Lower Saxony, in the north of the country, are investigating farms suspected of fraudulently selling organic and free-range eggs.
The German weekly magazine, Der Spiegel , has revealed that egg producers are being investigated for producing eggs falsely labelled as organic. In fact, eggs declared to be organic were placed on the market; they were, however, not organic since it appears that the production criteria required to display the much sought-after label had not been respected. The violations of the protocol to obtain organic eggs include the number of animals kept together in hen-houses and how the hens were actually treated.
It is assumed that this concerns consumer fraud which, however, also affects many honest farmers of organic products. The scandal may also extend to other EU countries. The Commission is currently waiting for the results of the investigation that the German competent authorities are carrying out in the case of the suspected fraud concerning organic eggs. The points discussed included the idea raised several months earlier of the EU's sending a mission to train and advise the Malian army.
This great mission is seen as a key element, with soldiers already on the ground and a month mandate to mould the Malian army. Currently 23 countries contribute to the mission. The Mission's objective is to respond to the operational needs of the Malian Armed Forces through the provision of:. The selection of the personnel remains the responsibility of the Malian Armed Forces. Training will focus on Individual basic military trainings, plus platoon and company level trainings and manoeuvre.
In addition some specific courses will be implemented such as C-IED, artillery, engineers, and human rights. Since Portugal is one of the countries with a high rate of metal theft, is it not important from the strategic point of view for Portugal to be included in this partnership? The Commission is funding the Pol-Primett project which indeed has brought valuable results so far during the first phase. The choice of specific actions and partners remains within the discretion of the applicant when submitting the proposal.
The Commission cannot therefore demand that Portugal is included. A request for funding for a second phase of the Pol-Primett project has just been awarded a grant by the Commission. Portugal is part of the project consortium. O artigo 5. Is the Commission aware of this further incident at the Almaraz nuclear power station? How does it view the series of incidents recorded at the nuclear power station in question? The Commission has not been informed about this incident at the Almaraz nuclear power station.
There is no requirement to inform internationally about events of this level. The decision to shut down or to extend the operating licence of a nuclear power plant is a national responsibility. The Commission is currently preparing a new proposal on nuclear safety to ensure it is at the highest level possible. If so, in which years and in which categories? It is the instrument through which the EU's rural development policy is implemented. Asunto: Desarrollo del telepeaje europeo y otros servicios de transporte inteligente. En ella se establecen algunas acciones prioritarias cuya entrada en servicio es imprescindible para el funcionamiento de todos estos servicios.
A la vista de la complejidad y la importancia que la materia tiene para la competitividad del transporte:. The Spanish press has recently quoted the Commissioner for Transport as promising that the infrastructure and technology needed to establish a genuine trans-European highway toll collection system will be available in This directive lays down priority actions which are essential to the functioning of these services, including the provision of EU-wide multimodal travel information services, road safety information, as well as reservation services for safe and secure parking places for trucks and commercial vehicles.
In view of the complexity of this matter, and its importance for the competitiveness of the transport sector:. How far advanced are cross-border regional cooperation experiments on highway tolls? Does the Commission think that the planned deadlines can be met for the service to be up and running across Europe by ? A single on-board unit covering France, Spain and Belgium is offered by several service providers.
Interoperability between satellite-based systems needs an agreement on the precise content of the information to be exchanged between road operators and service providers. A norm on this subject is being finalised. Several MS are working on the implementation of an interoperable road tolling service between themselves that will use both microwave and satellite technologies. For other ITS services that could run on an EETS-compliant on-board unit, the Commission is promoting the rapid deployment of e-Call and of services pertaining to safe and secure parking for trucks, as well as of services providing real-time travel and traffic information.
The Commission foresees the introduction by of the based eCall service in all new type-approved cars and light commercial vehicles. This service will be based on a regulatory approach covering in-vehicle systems, telecommunications and emergency call centres. What measures will it adopt to ensure that authorities comply with the directive in the near future?
According to this Resolution, possible impacts, due to the construction and functioning of the Migration and Global Change Centre, have been assessed. Therefore, the Commission does not intend to adopt any measures on this matter. Asunto: Especificaciones para los sistemas de transporte inteligente.
LegalEdhec Research Centre Page 7 | | EDHEC Business School
Given the importance of these actions for competitiveness, interoperability and transport safety:. Has any Member State not yet transposed the abovementioned Directive into their national legislation? How does the Commission assess the contributions and progress made by Member States in this area, which is fundamental to the cross-border operation of these Intelligent Transport Systems?
To what extent could possible delays in the deployment of the Galileo network affect the development of products and services for these Intelligent Transport Systems?