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They sought out her harbor, created by nature and geography, for specific purposes and when those purposes had been fulfilled, they moved on leaving the Hole a relatively isolated and unspoiled region to this day. While geography and nature provided the setting, the explorers, traders, and mountain men of Brown's Hole brought the area into the mainstream of American development. They exposed it to the forces that were shaping the country and made it an integral part of it.
They discovered its secrets through exploration and, with the mountain men, peopled it with characters who made it uniquely American. Thus, during the years that Manifest Destiny grew into an American ideology, the men who explored, traded, and trapped in Brown's Hole and, indeed, the entire West provided substance upon which supporters of the ideology could act. By the right of customary usage, Brown's Hole became part of the myth and reality of America's westward expansion. In this remote and isolated area, we can see many episodes from the pageant of the settling of the American West.
Indians, fur traders, cattlemen, explorers, settlers, and outlaws all figure in the history of Brown's Hole. From its earliest history, Brown's Hole has been a place of controversy.
Even the origin of its name is shrouded in mystery and contention. The list of possible namesakes seems as endless as the debate it arouses. A traveller in said, "The place was called 'Brown's Hole' from the fact that a number of years before a white man named Brown had been murdered by the Indians there. Sage, who camped in Brown's Hole in while searching for a fabled tribe of white Indians known as the Munchies, said it was named after a trapper by the name of Brown who came to the Hole to hunt in the fall.
Major John Wesley Powell, in , said Brown's Hole was named "in honor of an old time trapper, who once had a cabin there, and caught beaver and killed deer. From this the name Brown's Hole became fixed, she claimed. Others believe that a French Canadian trapper by the name of Baptiste Brown is the rightful claimant. One writer claims that "Two years after Ashley's visit Baptiste Brown, wandered into the Hole," and "did something a voyageur rarely did; that is he decided to settle down.
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Choosing a site not far from the confluence of Vermillion Creek and the Green River, he built a cabin for himself and his Blackfoot squaw. Fraeb and three of his men were killed along with forty or fifty Indians. So to Baptiste Brown we give the credit for being the first white man to settle in Chalifoux was a French Canadian trapper who operated out of Taos. He led a horse stealing party to California in , operated a trading post in Embudo, New Mexico, in the s, and built the first house in Trinidad, Colorado, in He visited the Brown's Hole area in and left his name carved on a cliffside in the Willow Creek drainage.
In he served on the jury trying the murderer of Charles Bent in Taos. It seems unlikely, however, that such a visible personality could have spent so many years living a double life under an alias in Brown's Hole. Hoy, an early Brown's Hole cattleman, had the following comments about Baptiste Brown:. As Baptiste Brown of Brown's Hole fame never existed, he will be hard to kill and bury him so deep in the earth or oblivion but that someone will attempt to disinter him, rehabilitate his ghostly skeleton with flesh, blood and life, and expose him to new adventure and dangers, for Baptiste Brown's ghost like all spirits and ghosts has neither beginning nor end; while at the same time affording material for endless discussions.
Hoy proposes that the Hole was named because of its physical appearance. He writes:. When we emerged from Red Creek Canyon that November day in ; looking east we could see the entire length and both sides of the Hole, two apparently unbroken mountain ranges, covered with a dense growth of low cedars and pinon, the whole representing a dark brown in appearance approaching black. All the stories told that it was named after a trapper by the name of Brown are pure fiction.
Unless some new evidence is found, the identity of the elusive Brown will remain a mystery. The earliest recorded visit to Brown's Hole by a white man, however, is not a mystery. His boat had been launched above Flaming Gorge and he rode the rapids for six days without food through the perpendicular canyons when "suddenly the mountains drew back, the river widened, and they shot out into beautiful Brown's Hole. Ten miles below was a great campground where thousands of Indians had wintered.
Brown's Hole became the scene of fur company activity and between and , nearly every mountain man or trapper of consequence visited Brown's Hole including Kit Carson, Joe Meek, Uncle Jack Robinson, and Robert Newell. In , the Ceran St.
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Vrain party out of Taos wintered in Brown's Hole. Thomas Smith, who had performed a self-amputation on a wounded leg and whittled himself a wooden replacement, was a member of the party. Known as "Pegleg", he went on to become one of the West's best known horse thieves.
Christopher Carson made his first recorded visit to Brown's Hole in when he came north from Taos to trap along the Green with Uncle Jack Robinson. After catching one hundred beavers, they wintered in Brown's Hole.
They found elk to be plentiful, but buffalo were scarce. It is probable that they erected some sort of shelter in the Hole. They returned to the North Platte in the spring of During its brief history, Fort Davy Crockett "was a social center of the Rocky Mountains" [ 15 ] as well as an economic center and a crossroads of the West linking the northern fur frontier with the southern. The exact date of the fort's construction is uncertain. Licenses issued to individuals and trading companies authorizing trade with certain Indian tribes at designated places issued by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs in St.
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Louis, William Clark, of the Lewis and Clark expedition, indicate the existence of a trading post in Brown's Hole dating back to If this early post was not the actual Fort Crockett, "it is likely the fort was built sometime in , probably during the summer months when trapping could not be carried on. The three partners in the Fort Davy Crockett venture were William Craig, Phillip Thompson, and Prewitt Sinclair, although it is not certain that they were the ones who actually constructed the fort. Descriptions of the fort have been left by travellers who visited there in The party experienced some hardships crossing Colorado and found it necessary to cook and eat a dog.
While some of the party felt the dish tasted like mutton, Farnham declared that "it tasted like the flesh of a dog, a singed dog. Approaching the fort, August 12, , hungry and exhausted, Farnham was impressed by the beauty of the area and wrote "the bluffs opened before us the beautiful plain of Brown's Hole. The Fort. The dark mountains rose around it sublimely, and the green fields swept away into the deep precipitous gorges more beautifully than I can describe.
He sat talking with Sinclair until midnight and then Sinclair gave the guest his own bedroom for the extent of his stay. The Fort is a hollow square of one story log cabins, with roofs and floors of mud, constructed in the same manner as those of Fort William. Around these we found the conical skin lodges of the squaws of the white trappers, who were away on their 'fall hunt', and also the lodges of a few Snake Indians, who had preceeded their tribe to this, their winter haunt.
Here also were the lodges of Mr. Robinson, a trader, who usually stations himself here to traffic with the Indians and white trappers. His skin lodge was his warehouse; and buffalo robes were spread upon the ground and counter, on which he displayed his butcher knives, hatchets, powder, lead, fish-hooks, and whisky. In exchange for these articles, he receives beaver skins from trappers, money from travellers, and horses from the Indians. Thus, as one would believe, Mr. Robinson drives a very snug little business.
And indeed, when all the 'independent trappers' are driven by approaching winter into this delightful retreat, and the whole Snake village, two or three thousand strong, impelled by the same necessity, pitch their lodges around the Fort, and the dances and merry makings of a long winter are throughly commenced, there is no want for customers. He found the dog meat "excellent, much better than our domestic beef, and next to buffalo. Five days after Farnham's arrival, a group heading east from Fort Hall stopped at the fort. Wislizenus, a German from St.
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Louis was in this party. He was less kind in his description of the fort:. The fort itself is the worst thing of the kind that we have seen on our journey.
It is a low one-story building, constructed of wood and clay, with three connecting wings, and no enclosure. Instead of cows, the fort had only some goats. In short, the whole establishment appeared somewhat poverty-stricken, for which reason it is also known to the trappers as Fort Misery Fort deMisere. Kit Carson was the hunter for the fort for at least two years. After attending the rendezvous on the Popo Agie to the north, he recorded "I and seven men went to Brown's Hole I was now employed as hunter for the fort and I continued in this service during the winter, having to keep twenty men supplied with meat.
In the fall of , many traders visited the fort. Vrain, and Thomas Biggs trading for Sublette and Vasquez. Biggs reported that rivalry among traders was so fierce that they would not even observe the custom of carrying each other's letters. A major incident that might possibly have led to the abandonment of Fort Davy Crockett occurred in the fall of when a hunting party consisting of seven whites and two squaws led by Carson was attacked by a party of Sioux one morning. The hunters retaliated and after an exchange of fire, the Indian Chief approached in a peace making gesture.
When he was within shooting distance, one of the white hunters fired and killed him along with one or two other Indians. On November 1, a small band of Sioux avenging the killing of their peace making Chief, crept into Brown's Hole and ran off about horses from the fort. Instead of following the guilty Sioux, a band of traders, including fort partner Thompson, attempting to make good the loss, "went to friendly Fort Hall, Hudson's Bay Company post, and stole fourteen horses. On the way back, after enjoying the hospitality of some peaceful Snake Indians, they stole some thirty head from the unsuspecting friendlies.
The majority of whites at the fort condemned the thievery. The thieves, therefore, took the horses to an abandoned fort on the Green River at the mouth of the Uintah.
They found the horses on an island in the frozen Green River and the robbers in an old fort. Walker attempted to get the horses off of the island and across the river, but the attempt failed when the thieves rushed from the fort. Walker made a masterly flank movement and getting in Thompson's rear, ran the horses into the fort, where he stationed his men, and succeeded in keeping the robbers on the outside.
Thompson then commenced giving the horses away to a village of Utes in the neighborhood of the fort, on the condition that they should assist in retaking them. A rural mail carrier, curious about a strange green substance, falls into the clutches of two scientists bent on saving humanity. Her attempts to escape bring her life-altering problems.
The Haunting Of Knox Estate (Sight Unseen, book 2) by James Matheson
Also finding his life changed forever is her best friend at the Post Office who stops at nothing to find and rescue her. Skip to content Revenge for the Dogs A rural mail carrier gets more than she bargained for when she wishes God would avenge the deaths of her favorite customer and his little dogs. Green Stuff A rural mail carrier, curious about a strange green substance, falls into the clutches of two scientists bent on saving humanity.