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The data collected in this study should provide veterinarians with baseline information to assist in the diagnosis of ophthalmic conditions in the greater one-horned rhinoceros. Wounds in reptiles are a common reason for presentation to a veterinarian. At this time there is limited information on effective topical medications to aid in wound closure. The objectives of this study were to translate the splinted, full-thickness dermal wound model, validated in mice, to the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps and to determine the effect of topical becaplermin BP , a platelet-derived growth factor 0.

Ten bearded dragons were anesthetized and two full-thickness cutaneous wounds were made on the dorsum of each lizard. Encircling splints were applied surrounding each wound and subsequently covered by a semi-occlusive dressing. Five lizards had one wound treated with BP and the adjacent wound treated with a vehicle control. Five additional lizards had one wound treated with saline and the second wound treated with a vehicle control. Wounds were imaged daily, and the wound area was measured using digital image analysis.

Our preliminary study indicates that the splinted wound model, with modifications, may be used to determine wound closure rates in bearded dragons. When compared with saline, BP did not have a significant effect on wound closure rates, while the vehicle alone delayed wound closure. Histologic analysis of experimentally created wounds throughout the wound healing process is needed to further evaluate the effects of these treatments on reptile dermal wound healing.

An increase in mortality in a captive flock of budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus coincided with the isolation of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli from postmortem samples. Common histologic lesions included hepatitis, enteritis, and in one case attaching and effacing lesions along the intestinal tract. Retrospective review of necropsy records and increased sampling led to the identification of several cases of E. Factors such as environment, nutrition, and concomitant pathogens were thought to contribute to mortality in the flock.

Although it is not clear whether E. Manipulation of diet, environment, and the addition of probiotic supplementation resulted in a decline in mortality rate and decreased shedding of E. Gastrolithiasis was diagnosed in nine prehensile-tailed PT porcupines Coendou prehensilis housed at six zoologic institutions in the United States and Canada. Affected animals were either asymptomatic or had clinical signs, including weight loss, diarrhea, and depression. Abdominal palpation was adequate for diagnosis in all six antemortem cases, and radiographs confirmed a soft tissue density mass effect produced by the concretion.

These gastroliths were all successfully surgically removed. Recurrence of gastrolith formation was common and occurred in four of the cases.

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Three cases were diagnosed postmortem, with the gastrolith causing gastric perforation in one case. Gastroliths from four cases were identified by mass spectrometry as bile acid precipitates consisting of the insoluble acid form of endogenous glycine-conjugated bile acids. Recent issues surrounding captive amphibians are often nutritionally related problems, such as hypovitaminosis A. Although supplementation of frogs with vitamin A is a topic of investigation, the underlying issue is understanding vitamin A metabolism in amphibian species.

Serum, liver, and whole body samples were analyzed for vitamin A content. The Cuban tree frogs showed higher concentrations on average of vitamin A in serum Although all amphibians collected in this study appeared healthy, a larger sample size of animals, with known health histories and diets, may provide stronger evidence of normal expectations. Kudoa spp. Myxozoa: Multivalvulida are of significant concern in marine and estuarine teleosts because of trophozoites and spores in the skeletal muscle reducing the marketability of wild and cultured fish.

Spores of a Kudoa sp. The male bullnose eagle ray case 1 showed intractable weight loss, muscle wasting, and hyperkalemia, and was euthanized. The skeletal muscle showed myofiber degeneration, vacuolation, and necrosis, and spores of a Kudoa sp. The female bullnose eagle ray case 2 had a severe, rapidly progressive, erosive lesion extending through the pectoral fin and was euthanized.

There was no inflammation or degeneration associated with the infected myofibers in case 2.

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From case 1, morphometrics of 15 spores in histologic section were apical width 6. Spores from case 2 were indistinguishable from those in case 1. This appears to be the first report of Kudoa sp. A captive, yr-old, intact male pygmy hippopotamus presented with nonspecific signs of weight loss, inappetence, diarrhea, and lethargy. After 5 wk of diagnostic investigation and symptomatic treatment, an acute leukemic process with concurrent polycystic kidney disease was suspected.

The animal's condition continued to deteriorate prompting euthanasia. Necropsy, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical examination confirmed acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia and polycystic kidneys. Acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia has not previously been documented in this species; however, polycystic kidney disease has been reported. This case report adds to the increasing number of pygmy hippopotamuses diagnosed with polycystic kidney disease and describes acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia, a previously unreported disease of this species. From April to July , rectal swabs were collected from 48 free-ranging small Asian mongooses Herpestes javanicus on the east and south coasts of Barbados and analyzed for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp.

Salmonella was recovered in One east-coast sample of 11 tested for Campylobacter was positive 9. These results indicate that mongooses in Barbados are carriers and shedders of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. An open grade I transverse diaphyseal fracture of the metatarsal bone in a 5-yr-old female guanaco Lama guanicoe was successfully stabilized with a locking plate system, which is a minimally invasive approach. A conical coupling screw-plate locking system with 3. The implants were protected postoperatively with a splinted bandage. The fracture healed without complications, the limb function was successfully recovered, and no major complications were observed at the 2-yr follow-up.

The surgical procedure was carried out with biologic internal fixation supports and an adequate functional union within a time period similar to that reported for this species following other fracture fixation methods. This case highlights the potential benefit of combining minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis and plate-locking systems for fracture repair in camelids. The handling of turtles and other reptiles can be associated with risk of pathogenic enterobacteria transmission, mainly Salmonella spp.

The aim of this study was to identify the enterobacteria in cloacal swabs of 39 red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans. Cloacal swabs from 39 captive individuals were analyzed. Bacterial identification was achieved through conventional tests and automated turbidity analysis. Salmonella spp. The intestinal enterobacteria identified in this study differed from that reported in the literature for other reptiles. Recently, herpes viruses have been detected in different cetacean species from the Atlantic and in Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba.

While pathogens such as cetacean morbillivirus have been widely studied following recent epizootics, herpesvirus HV distribution and pathogenic effects in cetaceans are still understudied. This study reports the first molecular identification of a Gammaherpesvirus in the genital mucosa of a free-living Mediterranean bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus stranded off the coast of central Italy.

Sequenced herpesviral PCR product was closely related to other HVs recently isolated in the genital mucosa of various cetacean species. Three silver arowana Osteoglossum bicirrhosum were presented with unstable fractures of the mandibular symphyses. Surgical repair was performed to reduce and stabilize the fractures using interfragmentary wire. The fish returned to light feeding at 2 days and normal feeding at 5 days postsurgery. The wires were removed at 6 wk postsurgery with good alignment of the mandibular symphyses and stable fracture sites.

There had been no further complications at the time of writing 18 wk postsurgery. Free-flying turkey vultures Cathartes aura were sampled in California to investigate the fecal shedding prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica , Campylobacter spp. Turkey vultures sampled at a location with range sheep were more likely to shed tetracycline-resistant E. These findings illustrate the importance of assessing drug-resistant pathogen transfer at the livestock—wildlife interface. Lymphoma is a common malignancy observed in companion animals. This type of naturally occurring neoplasia has been uncommonly reported in great apes.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in an 8-yr-old captive orangutan Pongo pygmaeus with gastrointestinal disease by histologic and immunohistochemical methodologies. The orangutan was treated with three cycles of combination chemotherapy intravenous Rituxan, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine. The primate has been in good health and exhibiting normal behaviors for more than 15 mo following treatment.

In March , a yr-old captive female African elephant Loxodonta africana underwent an exploratory laparoscopy after several weeks of diarrhea, submandibular and ventral edema, and swelling on medial and lateral aspects of all feet. Although there have been recent advances in laparoscopic vasectomies in free-ranging African elephants in South Africa utilizing specially designed rigid laparoscopes and insufflation devices, this was the first attempt at using these same techniques for an exploratory purpose.

The elephant was sedated in a static restraint chute and remained standing for the duration of the procedure.


Laparoscopy provided visibility of the dorsal abdomen, enabled collection of reproductive tract biopsies and peritoneal fluid samples, and allowed for instillation of antibiotics and crystalloid fluids directly into the abdominal cavity. Abdominal exploration, collection of tissue samples, and local therapy is possible via standing laparoscopy in megavertebrates.

A mo-old female fennec fox Vulpes zerda with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus CAdV. Only CAdV type 1 CAdV-1 was detected in several organs liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart , and other viruses were not found.

CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing. An African pygmy hedgehog Atelerix albiventris was diagnosed as chylous ascites with biliary cirrhosis. On serum biochemical examination, the hedgehog had hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, and high blood urea nitrogen. There was no cytologic or genomic evidence of infection, and a blood culture was negative. Histopathologic examination revealed a liver with proliferative bile ducts that were often surrounded by prominent septa of fibrous connective tissue. In the area of ductular reaction, proliferative cells positive for CD66, an embryogenic antigen of epithelial cells, were revealed.

The potential association between chylous ascites and liver cirrhosis is undetermined but could be an aspect of future study. This is the first description of chylous ascites in a hedgehog. Asian elephant Elephas maximus dams and their newborn calves were tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in serum. Blood was drawn from dams prior to calving and from calves on their day of birth. All six calves born to tuberculosis-reactive dams were also tuberculosis reactive, suggesting prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies.

In contrast, all three calves born to tuberculosis-nonreactive dams lacked detectable tuberculosis antibodies in pre-suckling or day-of-birth blood samples. Of the living tuberculosis-reactive calves observed from 1 to 11 yr of age, none exhibited clinical signs of tuberculosis infection or became tuberculosis culture positive. This is the first report of prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies in elephants and demonstrates that detectible tuberculosis antibodies in newborn elephant calves should not be assumed to correlate with clinical tuberculosis.

An approximately 6-mo-old female bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus was presented for an inability to fly and bilateral drooped wings. Pectoral muscle atrophy with a moderate polycythemia was present. Over the course of 3 wk, there were no improvements in flight capacity, although the bird gained substantial weight. Further investigation revealed a prominent cyanosis that was responsive to oxygen therapy, a chronic respiratory acidosis with hypoxia, a cardiac murmur, and a persistent polycythemia.

No obvious antemortem etiology for the clinical findings was discovered on computerized tomography, angiography, or echocardiography. The bird was euthanatized as a result of the poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathology revealed no significant cardiovascular or pulmonary pathology. No myopathy was evident on electron microscopy of formalin-fixed tissues.

Based on these diagnostics, a neuromuscular disorder is suspected as the cause for the blood gas abnormalities, with a resulting polycythemia from the hypoxia. Respiratory neoplasia is rarely reported in avian species.

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A yr-old Quaker parrot Myiopsitta monachus was admitted with a 2-wk history of anorexia, depression, and respiratory distress. Clinical examination revealed a large, firm mass in the left pectoral muscle. Radiology showed a mass silhouetting the heart and the liver. Supportive treatment was provided, but the bird died during the seventh weekly visit to drain thoracic cavity fluid. Histology showed a nonencapsulated, moderately differentiated air sac carcinoma of the sternum.

Immunohistochemically the neoplasm was cytokeratin positive and vimentin and calretinin negative.


This is the first report of an air sac neoplasia in a Quaker parrot and one of few respiratory tumors in psittacines. A sub-adult male Assam trinket snake Elaphe frenata that was confiscated from an exotic animal dealer was found dead in its enclosure after a mo quarantine. The snake had grown well during that period and had no physical examination or bloodwork abnormalities during the quarantine.

On gross necropsy, masses were found in the epaxial musculature and stomach, the lung was diffusely thickened, the ventricular wall was mottled, and there was intracoelomic and pericardial effusion. Histopathology revealed diffusely disseminated granulomatous infiltrates throughout the lung interstitium and multifocal granulomatous infiltrates in the transmural gastric mass, within the myocardium and pericardial adipose tissue, in the liver and kidney parenchyma, in the cervical region surrounding the trachea and thyroid, and replacing the myofibers of the craniolateral epaxial muscles.

Fite-Farracho acid-fast staining revealed numerous intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacilli within macrophages, and polymerase chain reaction testing on frozen tissues followed by nucleic acid sequencing of polymerase chain reaction amplicons identified Mycobacterium haemophilum. This report describes the first case in South Australia, Australia, of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus.

Time to pay another visit to the ZOO. Jack Goldstein. Bird Watching. Connie Francis. Marshall P. Creating a Bird-Watcher's Journal. Clare Walker Leslie. Fly Fishing. Melissa Mang. Betty Johnson. Aquarium Water. Rosalie P. Janet Evans. Annalee Davidson. Barbara Taylor. Giraffes: Long-Necked Wonders. Caitlind L. Zahra Jazeel. Unusual Creatures. Michael Hearst. Gorillas: Men of the African Forest. Michael Courtman. Giant Pandas: Cuddly Bamboo Lovers.

John Davidson. Diana Fisher. Donna Latham. Tropical Wildlife. Jane Whitten. All About Pandas. Karen Darlington. Savannas and Grasslands. Jacob Mansel. Nesting Instincts. Maryjo Koch. Alligators: Floating Logs of the Swamp.

Kashiyuka visiting zoo (Perfume P.T.A DVD Vol.5) - video dailymotion

Spencer Jones. Birds- Identifying and Feeding. Earnest Rancier. Geoogy Physical Geography. Robert Pierce. Where's the Orangutan? Natalie Clarke. Out of Africa is Out of Date. Denis O'Neill. The Art Of Fly Fishing. Glenn Shute. Robin and the Honey Badger. Michael Chinery. Do-It-Yourself Dream Hunts. Mike Schoby. I Wonder Judith Janda Presnall. Bats: Fliers of the Night. Big Book of Photos.

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Pandas - Let's Meet Mrs. Where's the Orangutan? Natalie Clarke. Search for the Golden Moon Bear. Sy Montgomery. Selena Dale. Fraser Darling. Gordon Harrison. Robin and the Honey Badger. Bowhunting Tactics That Deliver Trophies. Steve Bartylla. A Pet Isn't Just for Christmas. Various Authors.

Amazing Sea Animals. The Wildlife-friendly Garden. Being Different Is Special. Adel B. Just Chipmunk Photos! Wild About Bears. Jeannie Brett. Animal Stories. Bill Sherwonit. Bob Gibbons. William Sabin. Crocodiles And Alligators Mega Monsters.

Visual Celebration of Borneo's Wildlife. Fanny Lai. Jeannie Meekins. Frederick Fichman. Vielen Dank! Die Rezension muss mindestens 50 Zeichen umfassen. Der Titel sollte mindestens 4 Zeichen umfassen. Ihr Display-Name sollte mindestens 2 Zeichen umfassen. Sie haben diese Rezension erfolgreich gemeldet.