Get PDF LEnfant sans étoile (Cal-Lévy-France de toujours et daujourdhui) (French Edition)

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online LEnfant sans étoile (Cal-Lévy-France de toujours et daujourdhui) (French Edition) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with LEnfant sans étoile (Cal-Lévy-France de toujours et daujourdhui) (French Edition) book. Happy reading LEnfant sans étoile (Cal-Lévy-France de toujours et daujourdhui) (French Edition) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF LEnfant sans étoile (Cal-Lévy-France de toujours et daujourdhui) (French Edition) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF LEnfant sans étoile (Cal-Lévy-France de toujours et daujourdhui) (French Edition) Pocket Guide.
From Early Modern to Postmodern
Contents:


  1. Larghetto Music: listen to famous original film soundtracks for free!
  2. A Guide to French Literature
  3. CONNEXION CLIENT

Comment pouvait-il nous en parler? Et bien je dirais que la ressemblance je ne peux pas la nier mais je ne la vois pas vraiment. Je pourrais citer aussi Rodolphe Burger. Il fut mis en ligne le 20 novembre Il affine son style musical, conduit une Mustang dans les rues de LA et vit dans une cabane dans les arbres. Dommage pour elle. Tant mieux pour nous. Il vient de sortir Dopamine, son premier album.

Un piano macabre, le style de son qui te fout la chair de poule. Le silence nous soulage. Retour sur ce nouveau langage. Les paroles sont riches, sur ce disque. Est-ce une pratique courante en Angleterre? Le titre Nara parle des droits des homosexuels. Surtout venant de leur part. Les intros sont longues, les outros aussi. Les espaces entre les chansons sont tout aussi importants.

Larghetto Music: listen to famous original film soundtracks for free!

Il y a une voix feminine sur Warm Foothills. Est-ce Feist? Tu ne nous crois pas, hein?! Ils rient. Ce genre de confiance se gagne avec le temps. En tant que trio il est difficile que nous ne soyons pas satisfaits de ce que nous avons sorti. Des morceaux trop country. Pour toucher un maximum de gens. Qui nous est propre. Je crois que je suis assez fataliste. La conversation part un peu dans tous les sens. Je parle trop. Il sourit. Piaf le faisait, Nougaro aussi. Mais il a le droit. Et inversement. En trois minutes, tu cliquais sur deux boutons pour en faire un titre.

Tu ne dors plus chez maman? Je vis tout seul. Les deux! Je me suis fait avoir au niveau du contrat de la vie. Et heureusement. Les films me saoulent aussi parfois. On aborde la notion de Gloire. La merditude des choses deFelix Van Groeningen, Belgique, , ndlr. Mais pour qui se prend-on pour juger? Rencontre avec Asa et Matthew. Asa : MGMT!

Quel serait le pire groupe auquel on puisse vous comparer? Asa : Ouh! Matthiew : Ah oui! Rires Foster The People? Cela reste, pour moi, le meilleur morceau de tous les temps! La musique est un moyen de se faire entendre sur tous les plans et ce que je vais dire dans mes chansons compte beaucoup. Et il est parti. Propos recueillis par Marie Polo. Il fut mis en ligne le 16 mai En live, nous sommes quatre, avec la plupart du temps deux batteurs qui jouent debout pendant que nous nous occupons de la basse et du clavier.

Je ne sais pas pourquoi. On ne pouvait plus la retirer ni abandonner le concept. On essaie de faire en sorte que cela soit possible. Il fut mis en ligne le 16 juillet Comme Burial ou Joy Orbison? Guy : Oui totalement! Du dubstep, mais pas du genre woa-woa-woa rires , du bon dubstep! Pas mal de House music aussi. Nous faisions des beats sur mon. Guy : Non. En fait on voulait faire de la House Music, un truc assez underground.

Et on est toujours dans le Top Comment travaillez-vous? Howard : Oui! Guy : Pas pour le moment. Mais nous allons revenir. On adore Paris. Comment concevez-vous votre musique? Parlez-nous de la chanson Flickers. Vous aimez danser? Dot : Moi pas du tout. Parlez-nous de votre collaboration avec Disclosure. Dan : Ce ne sont pas vraiment des paroles! Last Days avant quoi? Avant la mort… Rires. Dans Last Days, je raconte mon histoire avec des samples et non en rappant.

Est-ce que le masque et sa symbolique sont encore de vigueur sur cet album instrumental? Ce qui est. Cet album vient un peu de mon obsession pour le Minimoog et toutes ces ambiances. Juste que comme on bosse ensemble depuis longtemps il sait parfaitement ce que je veux et le grain que je cherche. En fait, oui, je pense. En tout cas plus que comme rappeur. Quand tu composes, comment avances-tu? Tout ce qui est.

Ces dialogues te sont venus comment? Comment les utilises-tu dans ta composition, pour rythmer la musique? Le travail de texture me prend le plus de temps. Dans le catalogue on trouve une traduction en japonais. Les japonais sont vachement dans ce style de musique cosmique. Tu trouves tout. Vous verrez! Tu peux nous en dire quelques mots?

Non, je suis en plein dedans. Je ne suis pas logique. Interview et propos recueillis par Sirius Epron. Photograhies : Laurent Nalin, du Collectif 5. Je ne peux pas vraiment savoir. Pas seulement positives. Tout a fait. Il a une certaine importance et il se trouve que je suis son ami. Les gens qui posaient les questions savaient de quoi ils parlaient et cela se sentait. Nous avons fait une pause. Je dis que je viens de cela… Je parle aussi un peu du film Being There de Hal Ashby avec Peter Sellers, son personnage est un jardinier.

Donc je peux faire cela en portugais, mais pas en anglais. Pas encore. Je ne suis pas vraiment un mec de la ville. On jouait des trucs. On jouait, on chantait, personne ne jugeait. Je voulais juste sortir mon truc sur vinyle, peu importe la taille du label. Oui, effectivement. Pas tant pour les choses auxquelles tu penses que celles que tu vois.

Parce que je ne vois pourquoi on dit cela de moi. Surprenant ou pas. West Coast quand tu nous tiens. Alice de Jode. Non Il rit. De quoi parle exactement le titre Jailhouse Talk? Ils ne peuvent pas car Johnny est en prison pour meurtre. Ils sont tellement habiles et intelligents, musicalement parlant. Pouvu que ce soient elles qui restent. Serait-ce Godzilla? Ca grouillait de monde et une sorte de bruit permanent arrivait de toute part. Quelles influences la ville a-t-elle eu sur ton disque?

Trey et Matthew E. Je pense que tout le monde les aime, non? Ils obtiennent peu mais travaillent comme des dingues. Je ne pourrais jamais me torturer ainsi aussi longtemps. Je lui. Il y a eu beaucoup de discussions, mais pas de vrais liens naissant avec la plupart des gens que je rencontrais. A Nashville, tout le monde fait de la musique, mais personne ne prend le temps de soigner les choses.

Mais parfois, je vais chercher des mots ailleurs. Pour It Is You, je voulais emmener les gens dans des endroits oniriques. Oh mon dieu, oui. McGee et ses camarades pour le label donne le ton. A bon entendeur…. Pour notre plus grand bonheur. Une conversation. Tu prends ce que tu veux. Quand il est mort ce fut un choc. Jeff, oui. Avec un grand M. Tout Rires! Il est bon de le rappeler de temps en temps. Textes et propos recueillis par Ariel Carol Novak.

Photographies : Justine Tellier, pour Crumb magazine. Autant dire que je ne savais pas de quoi elle. Tout le monde le pratique plus ou moins dans sa chambre ou sa salle de bain. Et tu es champion du monde de la discipline… Oui! Champion du monde et ! Ah non! Restons humble. En fait, on est un. Finalement, tu as le meilleur job du monde, non?

On se fait suffisamment chier dans la vie, non? Non plus! Ou seulement sur une photo. Pas plus. Il faut avoir un style qui tue, tout miser sur le costume. De qui parles-tu? Il y a des gens qui nous suivent. Comment est le vrai Gunther dans la vraie vie? En fait, un peu comme maintenant. Et surtout de plaisir! Il doit y avoir une raison. Je les pense comme des toiles de fond pour drame,.

Ou avez-vous besoin de vous sentir chez vous? Je ne pense pas que ce serait le cas. Je me suis toujours senti un peu en dehors de tout. Ce sont des choix simples. Souhaitez-vous parler de la part mystique de votre musique? Donc on devient artiste ou musicien par manque de religion? Il y a un an et demi. Moins on parle de vous, mieux vous travaillez? Je pense, oui. A nos chansons. Mais les. Peter Bjorn, ndlr , lui, est un ami de longue date. Mais les choses risquent bien de changer. Bravo la France! Ou pas? Lisez-donc pour mieux comprendre….

Lauren : Club-mate?! On essaie. On y jouait toute la nuit. Et les gens aiment vraiment la musique. En tout cas, je ne pense pas. Je pense au travail de la voix notamment. On le place au-dessus de la technique. On aime la musique qui parle aux gens. Augustin : Non, je ne pense pas. Antoine : Moi et ma femme. Comment travailles-tu pour reproduire tes influences graphiques dans les textes? Antoine : Tu as senti une influence graphique dans les textes? Antoine : Exactement. Antoine : Pas pour le moment. On teste des trucs. Myxomatosis, de Radiohead.

Je travaille avec The Avener. The Avener avait. Elle enregistre un premier album, For Kenny. Mais tu le fais avec des hommes qui ont la cinquantaine, alors que tu es une adolescente. Au moins le redevenir. Je revenais tout juste de Berlin. Je ne voulais pas en apprendre trop. Je lavais les cheveux de ces gens alors que je voulais juste faire de la musique. Je la trouvais tellement belle, je voulais faire de la coiffure pour lui ressembler! Mais qui sont-ils donc?

Chacun faisait sa musique, ses photos, ses images. Patrick faisait du beatbox. Je veux parler des textes, parce que Lorent vient. Lorent : tout sourire Merci! Lorent : Pas vraiment. Nous ne sommes pas vraiment un groupe de studio. Lorent : Totalement. En Colombie par exemple, personne ne se pose de questions. Patrick : Je marchais dans les rues en leggings et les. Lorent : Au Canada aussi, tu peux te maquiller ou te promener nu, personne ne te calcule.

Or un artiste ne peut pas tout expliquer. Aux U. Avec un besoin de dire des choses? Par militantisme? Lorent : Dans mon cas non. Lorent : Exactement. Patrick : Non mais je te jure. Et puis, plus tard, de la chanson : Brassens, Boby Lapointe, je me rappelle encore des textes. Cet album reste le number one.

Finalement, on est un groupe graphique! Patrick : Oui! Patrick : Damien-Jean rires. Robin Thicke. Photographie Enzo Addi. Pourquoi as-tu choisi le nom Hollysiz? Je trouvais que cela sonnait bien. Comme quoi? Ca a pris du temps. Le studio aussi. Tu parlais de ton envie de faire de la musique autour de toi? Il faut le temps de rentrer dans un album. Il y en a plein. Les renouveaux musicaux partent souvent de chez eux. Et je dois avouer un petit faible un peu moins pointu pour Bruno Mars. Cela vaut aussi certainement pour ton parcours.

Propos recueillis et textes : Lucie Rico. Son premier album, Zanaka, est sorti le 6 novembre dernier. Pas facile, au vu de son parcours atypique. Qui est Jain? Elle concerne les gens qui nous entourent.

Top 10 *MOST AMAZING KIDS* SINGING GOLDEN BUZZER AUDITIONS!

Un peu de tout. Il y a pas mal de hip-hop mais aussi des chansons africaines et musiques traditionnelles. Comment composes-tu? Car chez moi, tout part souvent dans tous les sens. Quel rapport entretien-tu avec internet? Est-ce que tu aimerais un jour collaborer avec certains artistes? France et sur Paris en particulier.

Je crois que cela suit tout simplement ma vie. Un peu comme un voyage. Vous composez, jouez, arrangez, chantez. Est-ce un hommage? Je racontais cette histoire au premier album. Il y avait Kate Bush, Joni Mitchell, aussi.

Il faut juste se donner le temps pour bien diriger son objectif et au moins essayer. Nous avons simplement fait un seul concert pour Franky Knight. Ma musique lui a plu. Il a voulu produire un album sur-le-champ. Je parle de celle du public. Il rappelle aux gens qui je suis. Pas vraiment le hasard. Tu baignes dans la musique depuis toute petite.

Il cherchait justement une chanteuse. Et ton rapport aux sixties? Je parlais de jukebox personnel… Oui! Pendant le premier E. Je ne sais pas encore avec qui je vais travailler. Et puis, la mode a un aspect sociologique. Ce serait qui? On risque de livrer au public un format coffret et un format plus classique, avec 11 ou 12 titres ou Je ne sais pas si je garderais toutes les chansons, notamment les reprises.

Est-ce que tout cela me rend heureuse? Avec un ami. Comme un message personnel. Quand je vois des gens ici en France qui se plaignent pour des choses superficielles, je trouve cela assez injuste. Le classique aussi. Je la sens. Quel genre de classique? La musique classique a un pouvoir en plus par rapport aux autres musiques. Parlez nous de ces voyages. Comment abordez-vous votre relation avec le public?

Eye Signal de Jon Hopkins. Pourquoi avoir choisi Cavalier comme premier titre extrait, pour promouvoir votre album?

CRÉER UN COMPTE CLIENT

Tout ce que je fais est personnel. Elle est en train de travailler dessus. Le temps manquait, alors nous ne nous sommes pas assis. Car je ne sais jamais vraiment ce que je joue. Alors, en attendant, en effet, je tapote dessus! Du moins pour moi. Je crois. Devant un public? Cette chanson parle de cela. Keep Your Head Up est la plus ancienne. De la musique et de la ride. After having scored a 9. Traveller, passionate by surf videos and famous for his colourful wetsuits, he will be one of the ones to watch in By Laurie Cassagnes. After cover thousands of kilometres and overcome jet lag, where are you today?

I was in Western Australia at the start of the week, and now in Bali. Can you present yourself for the people who might not know you? My name is Nic von Rupp. My life consists of chasing the world Tour of surfing and filming the best biggest waves our world has to offer. When did you start to chase the waves for the first time and where did that need come from?

I grew up on the beach. As a highly active kid I was always having fun in the waves with skimboards, bodyboards, until time came where I stepped up to the real deal. I must have been around 9 when i started getting into surfing. That was it, my first love, never looked back ever since. There is some pay checks involved straight away, but I only really felt professional at 17 when I got 5th in the World Juniors in Australia.

Last year Nike gave us the chance to choose the colours of our wetsuits. I did get a little excited and accidentally put all fluoro colours on all the wetsuits. It was alright for carnival time, but I had to surf in it all year. I do have to admit it was an embarrassing year of surfing … Aha! It really has pushed surfing to the next level. Which one of all competitions you did marks your memory the most and why?

Probably market me the most so far, it was the. It was like from being an average school boy to becoming 2nd in the European Pro junior tour and then becoming 5th at the World Juniors against the best in the world. Good memories… Your best wave? Probably this year at the most feared Pipeline in Hawaii, I got a 9. On the internet we can more watch you than read you. Do you prefer to appear in video to talk about and show what you do? Surfing as the interesting visual side that the surfing community really enjoys watching videos of their favourite surfers giving their best moves.

Do you spend all your time to search for the most beautiful waves or you sometimes try to challenge the snow, the wind or the tar? I like to ask one thing. How many continents did you lay your feet on and which culture that you felt the closest to? But what I can say is I lay feet on every continent at least 1 time a year. What type of music or artist do you listen? I read books, Facebook, I listen to music …I like everything, house music, rap, groovy stuff, rock… What are your upcoming projects in the next few months?

What are your objectives for in terms of results? Win some some big WQS Events! Christian McLeods passion has led him to explore places around cold and rainy Ireland. He spends his days between finishing college and exploring his lands. CRUMB catches up with the youngster to ask about the technical aspects of shooting in the water, his gear and craziest stories.

Christian, where are you right now and what was the last thing you did before we started this interview? I would love to say something crazy like climbing a volcano or something, but in all honesty, I just got home from college. Tell us about your background, where are you from? When did you first discover an interest in photography and did surf photography kick in?

So naturally, I picked them up and started investigating, tearing them apart and taking photos etc… Then I grabbed my own semi-old digital camera and started bringing it to college. A lot of sneaking by Lecturers with my small camera bag had to be done, and it grew into an addiction. From there, I think it was about 5 weeks and I took it with me on a little surf to a local spot, and took a couple snaps, showed them to a friend who said I should send them to Tonnta, the Irish surf magazine.

Three weeks later it was published as a double page spread I still have the copy on my desk! It was so surreal. Even after I had that image published it was still just a hobby, a fun outlet to pass the time after class. I like engineering and would have no problem working in that industry, but this is my love. Is there any particular camera that you like to use the most? Where was your last shoot? What did you do there and what did you bring back from it? What is or has been your favourite location to shoot? Do you prefer to shoot from land or in the water?

There have been so many beautiful places! Norway was one that really sticks out in my mind, but then again Ireland just has so many amazing landscapes, not many countries can compete. I have no preference, to land or water, when it comes to photography, it completely depends on the waves and the landscape. However on a personal note, I love being in the water more than sitting on dry land.

Has the ocean always been a huge part of your life? First time I remember seeing the sea was when I was 7, in California, and I was only driving by on the way to the airport. I started surfing when I was 15 and from there my love grew for the ocean. You spend a lot of time in the ocean with dangerous currents and house highwaves.

I remember i so vividly. I was swimming with my housing, and trying to get a different angle moving closer to the end bowl and sneaking just over the edge each time. Jack Johns dropped into this massive barrel and I started to smile, pulling the trigger I knew I had something special and I just made it over that wave and over the next wave aswel. It seemed like there was a brief lull, so I started taking a couple shots of the landscape and I hear this whistle, and a few hoots and hollars.

I look and the jet skis are way out in the channel, and the surfers and way out to sea. I never felt my gut drop like that in my whole life. I got pulled deeper from the rip and closer to the cliffs, and. I thought I was gonna make it, dove under the wave, popped up, kept my head down and kept swimming, knowing there would be another one, and boy was I right.

A massive 15ft set wave was already starting to break out the back and I had the slimest chance of making it. I swam as hard as I could with my 1Kg waterhousing and my little legs. It suddenly felt like I was about to make it, the feeling of raising t the surface out the back. Then, I felt this thump and heard the sound of crushing ice. I was immediately thrown and felt as if I just jumped off a giant ledge, then another pounding. I eventually came up and took a breath of air to see the next wave break ahead, and white water heading towards me. I made it fine under that, apart from the feeling of my foot being caught on kelp.

I started to panic and started shaking my leg, and finally made it free and up to the surface again. Got washed out to the channel and started to kick when I realised my fin was gone, which I later figured out was shaken off by myself in the panic of the attack of the seaweed. Everything worked out fine. Which other surfers have you already photographed? Do you know them or they ask you to come with them?

I know quite alot of the Irish and British surfers and have shot with them on a variety of swells. I find it such an honor that they find my work good enough for them to ask. If my work can stoke someone out, it makes me happy. The business and the sport has changed over the last years. In your opinion what are the biggest changes that surf photography is confronted with currently? This is great for broadcasters, newspapers, journalists with their iPhones but pretty bad for photographers. I am not.

Saying this, the growth of social media has helped so many photographers and artists like myself to show their work to the world and let people enjoy it, instead of it collecting digital dust on an overpriced hard drive. I love you and hate you social media. In terms of self-marketing and social media, several of your photographs have been regrammed by the Red Bull Instagram account.

Do you think that the influence of these kinds of brands helped you? With which brands are you in collaboration now?

A Guide to French Literature

I love spreading the stoke. At the moment? Typing out my Thesis for college. Surfing, sending emails or spending time with my girlfriend in no particular order. Music my good friend. The band MEW have always been a great travel companion to me, always in m ear reminding me of old adventures. Nothing beats a little old school jazz either… Finally, what does the future hold for you and your work and where do you see yourself in five years from now?

But saying that, I see myself traveling and spreading my adventures and working with the best brands and magazines across the world, no question about it! Have you got any projects up your sleeve? Any last word? You will see. Thanks to my Mom for bringing me to the ocean, and all the people and companies who have helped me stay at the ocean. He makes average waves look good, he makes powerful waves look soft and impossible tube time look easy.

Everything is second nature to him. Half German, half Canarian, globe-trotter … Considering the way we want to speak about the boardculture in Crumb, it appeared as an evidence to us to interview Pablo Prieto for first in Water section and that he makes us share his experiences. Hey Pablo! Where are you in the world today? Hi, I am in Fuerteventura at this moment. I live in a little apartment in the north of the island. Can you present yourself briefly for the people who might not know you? That is one of those questions no one knows what to say… Well my name is Pablo and I am half german and half spanish.

I have grown up most of my life in the canary Islands, Tenerife. I love travelling and the ocean and really enjoying photography lately as well. When did you slip on the bodyboard for the first time and where did that need come from? When I was living in Germany age 4 -9 I have always dreamt of Surfing. I think my older brother got me into that thought.

When we moved to Tenerife the first thing me and my brother wanted to do is surfing, but there was. It is a very big sport in the Canary islands and considered one of the best places in the world to practice this sport due to its incredible type of waves. The Fronton Pro. The sensations the sport gives you on so many ways was more than enough to fall in love with the ocean and the sport.

When did you start bodyboarding professionally? My first contest was at the age of thirteen. After that point everything happened fairly quickly. Meeting others on a same level provides you with the motivation to improve quickly. With the age of six I entered the German National Team and started to challenge myself to compete on European level. I was still at school at this point and my studies have always been a priority. Once I finished I had more time to. Tell us about that. How did you work on it, design and technologies wise? Throughout your Bodyboarding career you enter many events, that can be forgotten quickly.

Being able to design my own Signature Model is something very special to me as a reflection to my achievements. I have been riding with Arin for 6 years now. And the relationship I have with the Shaper and owner of the brand is incredible. We work on different materials depending on the type of wave and water temperature trying to increase the performance of the riders. Ecrit en Exil La Chanson de Fantiue Premier Janvier. Choses du Soir. Chanson d' Autrefois G]6rard de Nerval : Notice El Desdichado.

A quelques Poetes Pensee dAutomne A David. Bans ce cabriolet de place Alfred de Musset : Notice Ballade k la Lune Sur une Morte. Choc de Cavaliers Barcarolle Don Juan La Melodie et rAccompagnement Marie Primula Veris Victor de Laprade : Notice Sous Bois Ballade de Victor Hugo La Montague : Pantoum Mourir, Dormir. La Colombo Leconte de Lisle : Notice Les Hurleurs Les Montreurs. La Chute des Etoiles Les Plaintes du Cyclope.

Midi Sacra Fames Taime le souvenir ,. Parfum Exotique Une Charogne Le Beau Navire. Le Vin de T Assassin Sully- Prudhomme : Notice Le Vase Bris6. Voix de la Terre. Paul Verlaine : Notice. Resignation Bon chevalier masque. BeauU des femmes. A une Tulipe Antoine et Cleoplitre Le Lit. Les Fengtres Notice Jean Richepin : Notice.

Le Dernier Ocean Le Glaive. Au Nord. Le Bazar. Celui qui me lira. Stances : Tu souffres tons les mmix Je ' uous entends glisser. Jules Laforgue : Notice. Complainte de I'Oubli des Morts Apparition Odelette La CoUine Eonde Finale. La Partenza, xiii. Qioand le roi vint a sa totcr Albert Samain : Notice. Musique sur FEau Automne Soir de Printemps Mon enfance captive. Paul Fort : Notice Ballades Vision du Cr6puscule. Le sombre del lacte Augusts Angellier : Notice La Grele Its constitution, as you well know, was in its best days marrowless and with- out nerve, — its youth without hope, and its manhood without dignity.

But it contains a shred of truth, which at its date was fresh and valuable. In the score of lean years with which the century opens, something that had been young, that had been ripe, and which had still the name of French literature allowed it, was lying parched and shrivelled upon its death- bed.

To suppose that this gasping veteran, whose life had been artificially prolonged until it was become a burden, was the founder of his family, to miss the glimmer of a likeness on his dull, sunken features with a virile and imperishable race, is a more deplorable impertinence than to be confident he could have no such heir as the eager and reckless child in brave apparel, whose adventurous vigour, seeming to belie his birth, was to enhance so splendidly a half-forgotten lustre.

Michelet's magnificent formula — ' La France a fait la France' — is as profoundly true in letters as in politics : the development of French poetry, which particu- larly concerns us, has been continuous ; not progressive in every sense, but continuous ; there is not a link in the chain wanting. Where the stream of song rises no one knows — it may be followed for nine hundred years.

As well might we date the beginnings of English History from the battle of Waterloo as suppose that the spirit of poetry was born in France when the long agony of classicism ended and the sons of Revolution woke the land with the sound of the horn in the woods at morning. And yet, so absolute is the lyrical supremacy of the last age there that whatever was accomplished in that kind before might well seem only a prelude or a promise.

Such an efflorescence, bursting the more suddenly at last for a long and secret saturation of the soil, is not to be explained : we only affirm it by saying that a few great men, and many ex- ceptionally endowed, then gave their energies to poetry. For if the artistic aptitudes of a race and of its speech — the in- fallible reflexion of a race — are never permanently modified unless by conquest, it is the apparition of genius that from time to time reveals them fully.

They are barren at moments of convulsion, in ages of extreme lassitude and of little men ; in others fashion, the pride of perfect imitation, starving certain faculties to glut the rest, inflicts a onesided — at first sometimes a salutary — discipline upon the formal conditions of the effort to create. But a dozen masterpieces would suffice to prove an abiding possibility.

They have all three in common a humanity which tends to neglect everything on earth but human life ; a bias of interest that ever shuns the unsociable theme; a sane precision and tenacity of sensuous apprehension, reproduc- ing each event in its real order and without method hitting the mark of a rigorous composition ; that sort of probity which abhors inorganic ornament and clouds of speech, and forbids the irrelevant irruption of the dreamer into the tale of his dream; continuity, the instinct which sustains one pitch, one gait, and powerfully helps illusion ; — and a rhythm above all, a rhythm clear, robust, and supple, that to this day commands the native voice.

The pomp and subtlety of the classical measures feebly perpetuated by the gaunt bookishness of cloisters, the dying echo of the swinging choruses so much more Roman! The language itself, with its scrupulous articulation, its habit of just equi- poise and contempt for stresses that are not significant, not dictated by the mind, — its inward harmony, which relies on uniformity of movement towards an ideal point fixed by a suspension of the sense or an anticipation of the ear , laid the foundations of their theory : — a tale of syllables which must be exact; in the long lines an interruption — and a respite for the voice — at a settled place where thoughts have converged with some intensity ; another at the end to mark the measure ; lastly, a recurrence of the final sounds.

The poems I have spoken of were stories, not what we call songs. Assonance is the repetition of a vowel-sound, rime the repetition of a vowel-sound and any consonant sounds that may follow. It is a pedant's assumption that assonance is older than rime, and gradually became rime. Very likely they existed side by side, appropriated to distinct needs, from the first.

Rime in French verse and assonance, if sometimes they have degenerated into toys, did not aim principally at a childish titillation of the ear : they were two ways of rein- forcing in a language of variable accentuation that con- sciousness of a regular return without which verse, in Europe, is not verse. For compositions uniform in measure, in which the succession of yoked lines might be prolonged at the discretion or according to the resources of the poet, assonance, striking the ear so often, was enough: it was enough, besides, to sustain the minstrel's memory, while the difference of a tone perhaps in his monotonous psalmody, gave salience to the last strong syllable of each line.

What were the lyrics of this early time? Learned men can tell us. They have shown that in the heyday of epical creation, the French love-song, made like the first epics for the whole people, but the solace and delight especially of women, flourished all over the north. Little is left but names. From scarce fragments, from many burdens that have survived to grace the lyrics of later days, from the songs of other countries — Italy, Germany, Spain — on which French models then exercised an appreciable influence, it may be conjectured that the lyrical output in this first age was rich, of delicate workmanship, extremely varied in form, and not devoid of sincerity and tenderness, but not very personal, tending often to dramatise a scanty assortment of situations, and seldom or never reflecting the absorption or the spiritual violence of passion.

The phase was short : French art took what it could assimilate, and rejected the rest. Neither its fundamental lucidity, its rude health, nor its conception of inanimate nature as above all a source of metaphors, was modified by contact with kindred but less disciplined peoples. While the feudal idea froze and became mechanical and barren, and what had been the national epic turned gradually to heartless spinning of wonders and compliant genealogies, the French lyric, steeped in the refinement of Provence and Aquitaine, lent itself humbly to the elaborate rhetoric, the shallow multiplicity of trifling variations, all the erotic and oftener Platonic casuistry of the troubadours.

It was a period of essential triviality out of which, however, French verse was to emerge more agile and more buoyant, able therefore to carry, later on, a more solid cargo with the better grace. Her daughters were the Countesses of Champagne and of Blois, both brilliant patronesses of the courtly poets.

And the dependence of gallantry upon dialectic at this period is illustrated even by a poem apparently so distant in its inspiration from the mellifluous debates of courtly triflers as the famous Romaunt of the Rose. Guillaume de Lorris intends his part the better in that prodigious allegory for a pleasant manual of the amorous code, while in fact he draws his matter, the interplay of abstractions which his robust and delicate talent often con- trives to colour with life, from the psychology of the schools.

It marks the shifting of poetical interest from castles to walled towns, that Jean de Meung, his verbose and encyclo- pasdic successor, whose virtue consists in his irrelevance, should have addressed a public accustomed to misogynous diatribes and the abuse of idle magnates and covetous monks.

Not the courts, indeed, but cities where the mental energy of the race accumulated, supply the rare oases in a great waste of insignificance. And a far greater man than either, Rutebeuf, is a Parisian from Champagne. Rutebeuf, a master of deep and sounding satire who saw the seamy side of Saint Lewis's reign, an artist who commanded the resources of a language still in flux, used rime unfalteringly and invented durable measures, maybe called the first excellent French poet whose name we possess ; the first at least who made poetry with his heart, out of his faith, his failures and follies, and pity for himself and all the world.

A sort of minstrel by trade, dependent on the great who were even then tiring of their fine-spun amorists, and forced sometimes to hire out his real piety to their compunctions if it is true that TMophile, a masterpiece of the religious drama, and the admirable life of S. Mary of Egypt, were written for patrons , he is the earliest articulate type of the literary proletariat in Paris.

Unclassed, he had something for all the classes in the realm. Rutebeuf in the thirteenth century beacons to Fran9ois Villon in the fifteenth, with only the flicker of sundry rush- lights searching the gloomy tract between them, except where, close behind Villon but just off the spiritual highway, Duke Charles of Orleans irradiates the sum of many nothings with a retrospective glow. With the long list of versifiers who bear witness to the decomposition of mediaeval society, the science of language and the history of manners are principally concerned : their best perhaps might furnish out a score of pages that should contain only deft and pointed and melodious lines.

It is enough to name Guillaume de Machaut, who could play the perfect suitor according to ancestral rules, but is reputed for having inaugurated the new manner consisting in an exact replenishment of rhythmical honeycombs from a store of indifferent words; Froissart, as empty and graceful in rime as he is rough and pithy in prose; Eustache des Champs, so grave, abundant and sententious ; the pettifogging Coquillart, Alain Chartier whom a queen kissed and his compeers valued for learning and prudent counsel, and Christine de Pisan, an amiable bluestocking and excellent Frenchwoman in spite of her Italian birth.

In general they are more sincere than the courtiers before them, in so far as their matter is of larger — sometimes indeed of national — interest. Prodigal of fine bookish maxims as their predecessors were full of precious sentiments, several of them display the genuine though confused and patchy erudition achieved with an abortive revival of learning under the elder Valois.

They are disputatious and didactic, in an age when ver- nacular prose already offered a more effective vehicle for wisdom and enquiry. They are hypnotised by the example of sustained personifications left by Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meung : visions and allegories are an indispensable part of their stock-in-trade. As for their form, they have exchanged the sane if often childish joy in free invention for the pride of a complicated framework — the bare ribs of a starved and juiceless poetry. Tradition is a slippery word : but it is doing no injustice to Charles of Orleans, the ineffectual hope of a national royalty, the not inconsolable prisoner of Windsor and Groombridge, and a prince, when all is said, too suave and too placable for honour, to describe his work and influence, which deviate from the larger destinies of French literature, as a return essentially to the refined tradition of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

To be sure he is a master of the fixed forms elaborated by more recent generations, and three quarters of his matter is an analysis of fashionable metaphor, a perfunctory attempt to galvanise the soulless abstractions which fascinated his times. But he is no preacher, his subtleties are all sentimental, his verbal con- scientiousness revolts against the servile excellence accessible to the machinery of iteration, and in a word his work is aristocratic in the most familiar sense.

What is entirely his own is the fluid sweetness, the disencumbered gait, the nonchaloir which history reads tragically, a delicious language, unpedantic, personal in its novelties and archaisms, and so perfectly apt to evoke the fugitive vision of happy glades and silver brooks — but especially his fortunate gift of lighting upon themes to which their very echo lends an 10 A CENTURY OF FRENCH POETS adventitious value, the illusion of a melancholy meaning. Remembering that his mother was a Visconti of Milan, and that his son was to lead a French host into Italy, we think of him too readily as a precursor of the French Renaissance.

He is much more truly, by virtue of his lovable shallowness, detachment and vague, fanciful gallantry, the last of the feudal patron-poets, and assuredly the worthiest. After him the Southern fever, which had survived the lancet of the Albigensian wars, made no more distinguished efforts, in the guise of chivalry, to capture the national genius. Villon may very probably have been an occasional client of the Duke's. Why does he seem not thirty or forty, but hundreds of years nearer to us? Because, for one thing, he was so much more frankly the child of his own moment, engrossed by the actuality of fugitive, intensely real im- pressions, and alive through them.

In the lurid twilight into which he was born, to hob and nob with death had a delirious fascination for the haggard fancy of men; and even the sane and lusty spirit of this wastrel, tramp, chamberer and cut-throat riming under the shadow of the scaffold, was harried by churchyard thoughts and haunted with the palpable image of decay, so that his verse, for all its vitality and fragrance, shares the sinister obsession of a hopeless people, tossed between hunger and pestilence and guile and rapine.

He transcends it : the peculiar resonance Villon lends to the natural man's outcry at the menace of decrepitude and extinction, is not merely an effect of the precision with which his exasperated senses perceive their very horror : his certitude of the common doom is the more acute for the yearnings of a wistful imagination excited by illustrious names and condemned to feed on its own hunger.

Where are Flora and stout Charlemagne? If what follows seems a little fanciful, what shall be said of those who insist on reading the rhetorical question in the famous Ballade as a sort of confession of unfaith? And Villon, while he revives one of the eternal commonplaces of all poetry, touches for the first time that modern chord of a nostalgic regret for the antiquity of the ancients, and because the past is past. The man was an imperfect artist, writing disjoin tedly, using a hieratic framework, mixing the gross and the grotesque with the poignant everywhere. But his power to express himself once and for all is equal to the new and extreme exigencies of a boundless candour.

Of one French measure at least, the ancient octosyllable, he discovered for himself all the deep resources ; and whoever compares the Grant Testament with Hugo's Songs of the Streets and the Woods will grant that the virtuosity of the modern master goes no further than Villon's in varying the speed and shift- ing the pauses. He knew also the need of varying the pace of thought, the value of alternate leisureliness and density. He is the first French poet with whom imagery, the giving a sensuous form to ideas, is spontaneous and not a device of rhetoric. Finally none had possessed before him that sure sense of the prestige of words, and perpetual spring of verbal invention, of which perhaps it is a condition that the speech shall be already venerable, and still changing rapidly.

For us, Villon is both the capital figure among the elder poets of his race, and the head of an illustrious line : for his contemporaries he was a disreputable exception. His com- rades and successors, the canting rhymsters of the ' repues franches,' were only capable of repeating the trivial acces- sories of his personal and lonely song ; and the considerable interval between his day and Marot's is filled with the turgid emptiness of an effete chivalry, the slender versified garrulity of selfish and earthly-minded citizens.

Meantime the nation slowly shook off its nightmare, and its fits of falling sickness were followed by the distemper of a second adolescence. The desire of knowledge was rekindled in men of books; Burgundy, spared by alliance with the English invaders, had kept alive the tradition of an indigenous manner in sculp- ture and painting, and now transmitted beyond her borders 12 A CENTURY OF FRENCH POETS the secret of a deliberate grace of line, an Attic sobriety and luminous decision of gesture which are the household virtues of the Primitifs ; in Burgundy too, and Artois and Picardy and the Walloon country, music was born again ; the Paris students learned Greek; French farce, in this the age of decadence for the grave religious drama, gave its master- pieces to holiday crowds in the great cities ; French prose was acquiring coherence, proportions and ductility, and the spoils of Roman eloquence had fairly begun to fill the gaps of language which a larger way of living and thinking made apparent.

But in the midst of this native ferment there was an almost absolute stagnation of French poetry, gravelled by fashion and authority. Men were still wanting ; and when men came who dared confide in the vigour of their temperaments, yet skilful and scrupulous to give a durable form to their impressions and reflexions, a mighty impulse from without had in some sort diverted the stream.

II The revival of learning in France began without Italian intervention and, before it affected at all profoundly the currents of the French literature, it was become a European thing, and the apocalypse of a scholar's paradise had lit up all the West. It is true that, when French artists went to school to the ancients, they saw the paragon of docility in a living people ; and it is at least a colourable opinion that, at the Renaissance, the infant arts of France were strangled by the silken cords of a foreign enchantress. Yet it is certain that poetry, at any rate, lay bemused ; the best hope of its awakening was in the general spirit of expectancy and rest- lessness ; and it was precisely an effect of that spirit which brought the warlike part of the nation, the most alert and the best able to determine a change of direction in art and in the arts of life, into immediate contact with the sudden and versatile genius of Italy, at a moment when all the adornments of a delicate prosperity were doing homage to the memories of her ancient pride refreshed.

The continuity of the French prose literature was rescued by the prodigious diversity and freedom of Rabelais, who touches Commynes with one elbow and Amyot and Mon- taigne with the other. In verse Clement Marot is a frail link between the starkness of Villon and the reasoned force of the French classics. Yet it may be said that if divine tempests of passion had raged within him and the fire of his imagination had been greater instead of less than his ease and his delight in melting syllables, the French lyric might never have swerved from its straight course, thanks to the steadiness of his example ; for though he fought for King Francis beyond the Alps he is very little Italianate, and his substantial qualities are all homely.

Fortune made Marot the poet of a court tinged with an alien politeness ; where the adulterate valour of a windy Amadis passed for the mirror of Frankish heroism ; but where also, for the first time, there was a zest for prompt and lively talk. He sprang from those rhetoriqueurs who had amused the solemn leisure of Queen Anne of Brittany; but, somehow, he escaped their pedantry. He used a succulent and hearty speech, loved and ' emended ' Villon, and while reflecting the idle humours of a domesticated baronage, and even while playing to his disgrace and danger with the edged tools of fashionable dissent, kept the tone of a sober looker- on, and held uppermost all the while that Gauhsh joviality and bantering prudence which are the lining, as it were, of the French gravity and rashness.

The old national fabulists live again in him, and for Voiture and La Fontaine, for Regnier and Moliere, for Gresset too and Voltaire, he incar- nated what was best worth preserving, or what could still be understood, in the spirit of the sixteenth century, which to more modern eyes he represents so meagrely. That splendid episode produced in France a richer, ampler and more delightful poetry than any the Middle Ages had con- ceived; yet it was an episode in some degree unfortunate for the lyrical development.

By their precipitate attempt to rival Greece and Rome with a monument of verse reared in a day upon their models, the heroes of the French Renaissance gave a singular bias to their art ; and the suc- ceeding age, in which the discipline of antiquity was accepted mainly through its affinities with the native intelligence, and its example scrupulously accommodated to the wants of the French genius, avenged too cruelly upon the lyrical idea that debauch of an unsociable enthusiasm.

The enterprise which Pierre de Ronsard, weaned by a merciful infirmity from the life of courts and reading Greek under Daurat at the College de Coqueret, confided to his comrade Baif ; the hope the pensive Du Bellay cherished in well- watered Anjou, and proclaimed in his spirited Deffense et Illustration de la Langue frangoyse, was the conception of an exalted patriotism — nothing less than to endow their country with a fame in letters comparable to the fame of the ancient RepubUcs and of Hving Italy. The influence of the Pleiad upon the lyrical poets of the English Renaissance has recently been recognised by English criticism.

Pedants might aspire to emulate the athletic accomplishments of Secundus and Sannazar, and allege the poverty of French to excuse their slothful prejudice. The old Roman writers, instead of using Greek in despair at the inadequacy of Latin for certain purposes of literature, had deliberately forged for themselves a worthier instrument by analogy with the Greek. It was for French poets to enrich French similarly. Neither Du Bellay nor Ronsard himself recommended an arbitrary multiplication of words : their theory of coinage was cautious enough, and their practice in many cases fortunate. But they erred by taking the indigence of the language too readily for granted, as if, because Marot's talent was content with a few words, it was the want of words that had strait- ened it.

And if it was inevitable, and in a measure salutary, at this stage, that the language should be crammed with more ink-horn elements than it could possibly digest, cer- tainly the poets of the Pleiad were tempted to prolixity by the very abundance of their material, and, what is worse, their example spread the mischievous superstition of synonyms, and the heresy of a distinct poetical vocabulary. Time has approved at almost every point Ronsard's treat- ment of the national prosody.

He left it to Antoine de Baif to make abortive experiments with quantitative verse : his own precepts, so far from being revolutionary, did little more than define and sanction the better practice of his immediate predecessors. Thus, he forbade certain laxities of rime and deprecated the cacophonous clash of vowels, settled the alternation of masculine and feminine endings, decreed the elision of a mute following a sonorous vowel, and insisted on closing the half line with a strong syllable in the Alexandrine, which it is one of his notable achieve- ments to have restored — especially in lyrical strophes of various measures — to the place of honour it had lost since Rutebeuf It is true the Alexandrine of the Pleiad had not yet acquired the stability of a real unit ; a certain envy of 16 A CENTURY OF FRENCH POETS the Virgilian amplitude fretting at the limits of a measure numerically shorter than the hexameter, and of which the rhythmical elasticity was still to discover, may account for the frequent overflow of Ronsard's periods, which too often efface the terminal accent to emphasise the bisection of the line.

And his choice of the short-breathed decasyllabic for his unlucky epic La Franciade, shows clearly enough how little he had divined the resources and the dignity of that magnificent type. But without him would the Alexandrine have survived at all? Ronsard is the author of the French ode — of the name and of the thing. Allured at first by the Pindaric divisions, strophe and antistrophe and epode, he came to see the futility of those appellations, and retained only the essential conception of one poem with several parts converging to a climax.

He is a great master of movement. The very notions of design, structure, composition, were new to his contemporaries, and for the first time the French lyric gained noble proportions in his hands. A sounder know- ledge of mediaeval poetry has reduced the number of structural inventions which can be ascribed to Ronsard — and still he remains the most fertile inventor in the whole history of French poetry. He gave the name of Ode only to his longer lyrics, high of purpose, mainly objective in theme and essentially religious in tone and feeling: in reality most of the love -poems, the small delicate master- pieces on which his fame now rests, are also Odes.

It is in these that his ardent and fastidious personality is most clearly expressed. In these especially he invokes the com- panionship of the inanimate, and ransacks earth and heaven for fair similitudes. Another, its counterpart and complement, is the impotence of envious time. No poet can ever have carried with him a more absorbing ideal of fame than Ronsard. Queens and cardinals and what was more to him his peers and scholars promised him immortality : but for him, as for Milton, the glory of which he felt serenely sure was mystical, independent of all praise.

Without false shame, he sang of it constantly, thinking less of his own person than of his illustrious tribe. For it is this after all which, more than his positive achievement, makes Ronsard stand out among the poets of France — that he lifted his art, once and for all, out of the domesticity in which it languished, and proclaimed the poet his own tyrant, with a royal conscience to guard and govern his inspiration. In his view facility and servility were one : hence his disdain for Marot's unstudied lightness, the milk-and-honey of Saint-Gelais, the laureate of a chivalrous revival — though he could be just to both upon occasion : hence too, in part, his deliberate rejection of those pleasant toys, ballades, rondeaux, chants royaux, which threatened the freedom and the seriousness of poets with their quaint rigidity.

Instead of these he brought into French poetry the real kinds — or what seemed such — into which the Greeks and Romans had distributed all metrical composition, only excepting the Italian sonnet from his proscription of ' fixed forms. He failed disastrously with his Franciade, partly because he wanted the genius of sustained narration, partly because he had not access to the genuine matter of French epic and was easily seduced by the prestige of a bookish argument. His towering figure dwarfs his comrades — Du Bellay, the tender and spontaneous elegiac with a vein of satire, and a master of the sonnet; Remy Belleau, an exquisite craftsman; the learned Baif, the philosophical Pontus de Thyard ; Etienne Jodelle, who inaugurated French tragedy, but a better poet than dramatist.

Their aims were Ronsard's : they had little of his force ; nothing majestic in their defiance of sobriety blinds us to the fundamental weakness of the school. And when a generation has passed, and Desportes appears, sugared and precious, there is an end of high ambitions, and the fester of Italianism lies open. Those Danaan gifts of the Renaissance, the curiosity of life and the theory of beauty, came charged with dangers for the poise of the French mind.

It had not to acquire the notion of humanity, and the new learning diffused through Christendom furnished that notion with a store of concrete applications to a distant age and other races, so like and so unlike us. But Italy had set up an equivocal ideal of the homo maxiTne homo, and the universal man was conceived not as a norm but as a rarity; by her example that craving to multiply the particular existence which is the principle of artistic effort as of most other activities confounded art with accomplishments and aristocracy with vocation.

Agrippa d'Aubigne, a Huguenot captain, wrote voluminously both prose and verse, in the intervals of fighting for religious freedom and the dismemberment of his country; his humorous Faeneste is forgotten, but the fame of Les Tragicques has almost in our times revived. The poem belongs to the fiercest period of the civil wars, though it was not published before the first years of the seventeenth century, which saw the final ruin of the protestant feudalism.

It is long, loosely constructed, tedious in parts; d'Aubigne's Alexandrine is, like Ronsard's, a shifting entity ; and there are quagmires of finical phrase in the masterpiece, which remind his readers that the old fanatic had served his poetical apprenticeship as a purveyor of gallantries. But the rhythm has a prodigious energy, the vivid scenes of conspiracy and slaughter burn our eyes as we read, the comminatory parts are pitched in a key of Hebraical solemnity : Les Tragicques is a monument of lyrical satire which stood alone in the language until the exile of Victor Hugo produced Les Ghdtiments, and is hardly to be matched in ours for the sonorous vehemence of its invective, though we have Milton's thunderous verse and scurrilous prose, and the sardonical fury of Absalom and Achitophel.

Mathurin Regnier is a satirist of another sort. His erudition — for he knew the Romans by heart — and his colour bind him to the Pleiad: his racy freshness, zest, agility, the conspicuous power in Lim of seeming simple, and the continual surprise of an expression startlingly right, carry us back not merely to Marot but to Villon too. Moliere inherited his vein and his diction, and the prose of Saint- Simon more than a hundred years later had the same vivacity and savour in a similar enterprise. This scandalous churchman he was incorrigibly profligate chastised folly without zeal, by the malice of keen senses and the tenacity of a sensuous memory which revived the very looks and tones and gestures of men, but also by the h 20 A CENTURY OF FRENCH POETS integrating force of an intelligence which could gather into types the particular bugbears of his sane humanity.

It was perhaps as the nephew of Desportes that Regnier felt obliged to break a lance with the implacable critic of his relative, by way of defending the fame of Ronsard : in any case it was a strange and deplorable confusion of issues which pitted so national a talent against the man who did more than any one else to consummate a national reformation in the matter of poetry. Fran9ois de Malherbe was a Norman gentleman who spent his life in hard campaigning of one sort or another : in youth he drew the sword for his faith and the integrity of the kingdom, and ended as the champion of the French idiom in its purity, and of the literary conscience.

He wrote a very few thousand lines of verse ; and of that little some is in the worst taste of the times, stilted and decorative and grossly Italianate. How he was converted is not known, but in middle age, or rather later, he formed a new manner, from which conceits are not entirely absent, but which is in the main the perfect model of sententious eloquence.

There was no exuberance in his talent : half a dozen topics, chosen for their common interest and developed broadly, in concise and solid formulas, sufficed him ; and he took only a few, and the most compact and sober, of Ronsard's strophes for his moulds.

CONNEXION CLIENT

With these, and the grave and confident tone of a robust frankness, a reasonable stoicism, he achieved two or three masterpieces which teach the meaning of orderly and true expression. But his precepts, formal and informal, were even more valuable than his example. They result from an intolerant contempt for waste material, and a conception eminently social of his art. The chaotic affluence of Ronsard's vocabulary did not charm him : it wanted a standard, and it provoked redundance. He tilted against the Gascon brogue of King Henry's court, and referred a dispute over a common word to the porters of the hay-market, thus signifying his confidence in the usage of the Parisis, that cradle of the language.

To eliminate caprice and chasten personality seemed to him a necessary aim of the poetical discipline. He never thought of poetry as anything else but a form of talk invested with a traditional prestige, by which the particular mind trans- lates for the general the accumulated sagacity of ages. But he laboured to make it as definite a form as possible, and that is the whole gist of his riders upon the prosodical legislation of the Pleiad — that the voice should halt where the sense is consummated, and that rime should be always strenuous, never slovenly.

In striving to impose these principles, he took for his models those of the Romans whose accent is most reasonable and whose labour is most cunning ; but it may be said of him that through the Romans he discovered virtues latent in the national literature, though already manifest in French building : economy, balance, a clearness which is not only like plain English practical, but logical also, and exacts an evident, a definite relation of units in a group; but especially the adjustment of proportions to the human scale.

The development of the classical ideal in French art and principally in letters was the work of no single intelligence. Ronsard, it has been said justly, belongs to the prehistoric age of classicism, the age of individual experiment. Malherbe did all one man could do half consciously to conciliate the aesthetic scruple, the breadth and serious enthusiasms of the sixteenth century, its learning and luxurious disdain, with those gregarious instincts, that sobriety and aversion to whatever is esoteric and disorderly, that preference of discourse over ejaculation, which are the perpetual guardians of the French tradition.

The elder Balzac takes up French prose at the point where Montaigne had left it, and gives it equality and cadence. Vaugelas, the grammarian from Savoy, reveals that sort of purity in the form of words and structure of phrase which only a passionate attachment to idiom can attain. But in the formation of a national taste not inferior to the master- pieces of the century, French society itself — a recent thing — directly co-operated.

There was indeed a stage when those celebrated gatherings at the Hotel de Rambouillet and other great houses threatened to frustrate, or at least pervert, the enterprise of Malherbe. When fine ladies leagued with professed wits undertook to humanise the fierce energy of a rude, full-blooded, turbulent nobility disused to all the graces by the civil wars, it is no wonder they overshot the mark of the urbane in their terror of boorishness and insulsity.

It was at first an intercourse of violent natures newly ambitious to assert themselves in a spiritual sphere, and ready to lend the exaggerated import- ance of a contest to everything spoken : there was no room for pointless talk ; and periphrastical inventions became at once a protest against crudity, the jargon of a caste, and the opportunity of a vehement egoism transplanted from camps and cabinets to drawing-rooms and bedsides.

Delight in verbalisms, and a rage for recondite allusions and allegorical politeness were fostered by the vogue of a new Italianism which set in with the brilliant pastorals of Marino and Guarini, and complicated by a very superficially Spanish strain of strutting and fantastical extravagance. Malherbe himself did not quite escape these modish taints ; nor later did the magnificent Corneille.

They were not any more than our Euphuists, our 'metaphysical school' of poetry symptoms of a decadence, but on the contrary the accidents of an effort, which at last succeeded, to soften the manners of a robustious generation. But this must be remembered to the credit of the prScieuses, that their aims, the constitu- tion of a cultivated nucleus, the purgation of the language by the test of usage rather than by the tyranny of peda- gogues, were infinitely respectable; and that it is in great measure owing to their intervention that in the age in which the French mind yielded not absolutely its greatest, but assuredly its most original contribution to European letters, the tone of discourse, civil, unstilted and conciliatory, pre- vailed; and that from then till now the relation of the written to the spoken language has, upon the whole, been constantly closer than in the case of any other modern idiom.

The lessons of Malherbe anticipated the consolidation of a fastidious public, secured against the charms of an exces- sive personal adventure in poetry by the ascertainment of its true intellectual bench-marks. But, in the first half of the seventeenth century, the immediate influence of society upon lyricism was almost entirely pernicious. There were men of talent among the ' bedside poets ' : Vincent Voiture, the spoilt child of a sphere above his birth, displays here and there an amplitude worthy of a higher ambition than to be the most facile, the most ' natural ' model of an artificial style; Sarrazin's witty triolets have an inimitable finish; the trifling fancy of Benserade is often exquisite.

But neither they, nor Theophile de Viau nor Saint-Amant — two writers who had certainly a spark of genius, and by no means depended upon the humours of fashion for their themes, however disastrously both were in different ways contaminated by its jargon — are of a calibre to make any one regret the victory of reason over temperament. Saint-Amant, a pensioner of queens and one of the hardest drinkers of his time, wrote plentifully and most unequally, but with extraordinary mastery of rime, variety, and power of sensuous presentment.

A sneer of Boileau's turned his heroical Moyse Sauve into a byword for inflation and absurdity: it is a poor epic, wanting enthusiasm, coherence, simplicity ; yet it contains many passages of indisputable grace and vigour ; and among the shorter poems of Saint-Amant several are remarkable for the full flavour and extreme vitality and faithfulness of the descriptions, a sensitive ponderation of sounds, a delightful comic sense and abundance of unused metaphors.

The admirable poetry made in the Great King's reign supposed the rigorous distinction of mind from matter, and dealt exclusively with mind ; its paramount concern being the conflict of passions, reason or discernment, and freewill in the social man. It sought to represent human truth purged of its accidents; and, instead of the ideal figure summing and lighting up the movement of the Sixteenth Century, that creature of diverse aptitudes, mobile temperament, and unprejudiced curiosity called the complete or universal man, it sub- stituted, as the arbiter of its tone and language and interests, Vhonnete homme — the cultivated man of the world, who made the study of his fellow-men or more narrowly of his equals the occupation of a stately leisure, whose talk was mainly a ventilation of ideas, a gleaning of maxims, a definition of types, and whose abhorrence of obtruded per- sonality, intolerant of strangeness, mystery and emphasis in speech, proscribed the learned and the trivial jargons, terms of art and all that smacked of a function or a hobby or a trade.

King Lewis the Fourteenth succeeded in and died in And so he renounced the elegiac solace of intimate avowals, the direct appeal from sense to sense and from mood to mood, the notation of fluid dreams, the hoarse eloquence of a dishevelled frenzy. What else more necessary to the vitality of art was implicitly sacrificed with these things, could not be discerned before time had exhausted the original energy that begot the three great dramatic poets and the one great lyrist of the seven- teenth century.

Like all the classics — like most real creators — he dispensed with the credit of inventing his subjects or his framework; and by these, but much more by the ancestral, unstratified diversity of his language, he is a conciliator, soldering the Middle Ages and Marot and Rabelais both with antiquity and with his own time. Its peculiar virtues were all his : the interest of character, the very tone of reason, the scrupulous submission to con- ditional truth, limpidity, discretion, detachment; especially he had the genius of construction — that is, skill in marshal- ling the parts of a subject — and the rarer genius of com- position, which means skill in distributing the parts of a poem.

But his supreme originality lies in the continual invention of inimitable schemes, never exactly repeated, so supple, so delicate in their obedience to a secret rule that they seem the effect of blind chance or of a precarious power until they are studied and found to be the exact rhythmical equivalent of mobile sensations and an imper- turbable comic spirit, and an undogmatical sagacity, and a quiet tireless zest for life.

The dramatists concern us here only as poets. When we have abstracted the splendid moral gesture of Corneille, the fanaticism of his pundonor, the casuistical basis of his keen dialogue, the thoughtful concentration of his busy plots, the poetry remains — a poetry which is the natural idiom of his thought, and never falters. Smoothness is not its merit, nor diapason, nor opulence of figures; and his manner, sometimes truculent and not seldom precious, yields to the alternative temptations of his time : but a virile energy, a solid eloquence which disdains extrinsic aids, and braces the will to heroical action by the bare presentment of absolute postures, a rhythm impetuous, without subtlety, translating the clash of minds by the eager attack of clauses — the brevity which resumes vital situations and digested truth, an easy and native pomp in the carriage of his lines — of a witty fancy in any shape with any result to be drawn from them to imitation in real life.

They are a world of themselves almost as much as fairyland. The steadfastness of his piercing smile is a necessary part of his definition, so are his resolute appeal to an almost inexorable sanity and the wisdom of his social sense ; the invention, the formative power that fused Terence and Scaramouch and Patelin and the deep science of scenical perspective controlling the revelation of his creatures in words and acts, the near presence of his men and women and their indissoluble consistency as types, his loyalty to the conception of comedy and to the rule of one mood, even while his large philosophy continually points beyond the limits of the comic — by all this we are first and last impressed, to the prejudice it may well be of the admirable vehicle, prose or verse.

The peculiar qualities of Moliere's verse are vivacity and frankness. It is neither conspicuously sonorous nor often delicate, and negligences abound : but it is downright, full of pith, prompt and never halting, and wells free and warm from that teeming brain ; and where, as in that delightful Amphitryon, his fancy schematises at will, he almost rivals La Fontaine and shows such a tact and resourcefulness as no writer, not essentially a writer of verse, could ever call to help him.

Like Regnier, artistically in many ways his prototype, he is steeped in idiom, so that his very solecisms are racier than another's regularity. And the style deserves to be called national. Yet to suppose with some modern critics a sort of an ti- classical protest in the great foe of fustian, eccentricity and the confusion of kinds, the natural, the reasonable and exclusively human master of 'man's proper faculty,' is strangely to misread Moliere. In the case of Racine at least no such discordancy has been suggested to his praise or blame: it is past doubt that his tragedy is quintessential, the most authentic and authoritative emanation of the classical French spirit, the sovereign equivalent in one art of a particular civilisation at its acme.

He is not quite the greatest of French poets, nor even the most French, if we look for the intense affirmation of a characteristic drift — but simply the flower of the French mind. And so nicely trimmed is the balance of his properties that his singularity is ill to define and the real kernel of his genius is the less accessible to foreigners as he is not one of those who thrust forward insistently some single aspect — even the strangest — of the national soul. To us Englishmen Racine appears usually as an intelligence: his countrymen enjoy in his poetry, principally, a delicate mode of violent feeling.

If any virtues of Racine's stand out, they are economy and the sense of values. Understand that a poet has weighed his words and thrown no word away, and you read him deliberately, you raise the currency of his thought, the temperature of his emotion.